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Thursday, November 21, 2013

Notes on Various Types of Samadhis

This is a compilation of excerpts from dharshans [discourses] given over several decades, delivered before sincere practitioners of tantra, describing any of various samadhis, and additional notes by editors' regarding those events, individuated by brackets [ ].  Indicators referring to such notes may be marked by one or more * marks.  Each of the several excerpts are individuated by a series of tildens ~ between paragraphs.  

These discourses were spoken either in Bengali or English.  Contemporary sensibilities and conventions demand neutral personal pronouns, although proper use of English is still wanting when translating from other languages, such as Bengali, for a neutral personal pronoun, on occasion the term "he" is used for anyone or for the singular entity of the Universe, otherwise referred to as Supreme Consciousness or Parama Purus'a, among other terms. "Baba" is the tantric guru speaking in the dharshans or referred to by the editors in their notes.

*See Glossary for various terms





Samadhi is the ultimate threshold of intimacy with the Universe, states of mind, or realms of being, achievable through any of various practices, toward which all of Tantra is geared toward achieving within a single lifetime and available to all beings in human form.  



Various Types of Sama'dhis


In the course of sa'dhana', the unit mind takes the ideation of Parama Purus'a [Universal Consciousness].  According to the very nature of the mind, it will one day become converted into Parama Purus'a.  Before being finally merged in Parama Purus'a, sa'dhakas [spiritual practitioners] pass through different phases of sama'dhi,* of which savikalpa and nirvikalpa are prominent.


* "Absorption" of the unit mind into the Cosmic Mind (savikalpa sama'dhi) or into Consciousness (nirvikalpa sama'dhi).  -Eds.


After continued practice of sa'dhana', when the mahattattva ["I" feeling] of the unit mind gets metamorphosed into the Cosmic "I" feeling, the citta [done "I"] of the microcosmic mind merges in the aham ["I do" feeling], the aham in mahat.


When an object is converted into its cause, this merger is called pran'a'sha (utter destruction).  Mahat is the cause of Aham.  Aham is the cause of the citta of the Macrocosm (Bhu'ma'), and in the path of pratisaincara** the citta merges in the aham and the aham in mahat.  The unit mahat becomes one with the Macrocosmic Mahat.


** In the Cosmic Cycle, the step-by-step introversion and subtilization of consciousness from the state of solid matter to Nucleus Consciousness.  -Eds.


At this stage, the unit mind feels that there are two entities -- "I" and "my Lord".  The mind cannot think or feel anything except the existence of its own self because the feeling of the doer "I" is metamorphosed into the pure "I" feeling.


There are two tendencies of the mind -- sam'kalpa'tmaka and vikalpa'tmaka.  When the mind thinks and plans* to do this or that, it is the sam'kalpa'tmaka portion of mind, and those feelings or thoughts are translated into physical action by the vikalpa'tmaka portion of mind through the sense organs.  In savikalpa sama'dhi, the vikalpa'tmaka portion of the mind is totally suspended; only a small portion of the sam'kalpa'tmaka mind remains active.  The sa'dhaka thereby attains sagun'a'sthiti.  That is why it has been said in A'nanda Su'tram,** Bhu'ma'vya'pte mahati aham' cittayorpran'a'she sagun'a'sthiti savikalpa sama'dhi va' ["When the aham and the citta merge into the Macrocosmic Mahat, the merger is called sagun'a'sthiti or savikalpa sama'dhi"].


* To think and plan is sam'kalpa.  -Eds.
** Shrii Shrii A'nandamu'rti, A'nanda Su'tram, 1995.  -Eds.


But when the goal of a spiritual aspirant is Nirgun'a Brahma [Non-Qualified, or Non-Attributional, Supreme Entity] then ultimately the microcosmic mahat will also merge in pure Citishakti.*** The unit mind will totally lose its individual existence and become one with Supreme Consciousness.  In such a case, where all mental activities are suspended in Bhu'ma'bha'va [Cosmic ideation], it will be a case of objectlessness, or nirvikalpa sama'dhi (the trance of indeterminate absorption, or total suspension of the mind).


*** Cognitive Principle, Purus'a, Pure Consciousness.  -Eds.



This stage of spiritual attainment is only possible when all the gun'as, or binding factors, have ceased exerting a static influence on the mind.  This state is the state of mindlessness and consequently objectlessness.


This state is verbally inexpressible, because Tasya sthiti ama'nasikes'u -- "This state of objectlessness being beyond the orbit of the mind, it is not mentally apprehensible."





Here, Mahakaola Tantric Guru Baba describes, in English, some elements of samadhi, of which Nirvikalpa is supreme.


Proof of Sama'dhi


During sama'dhis, spiritual aspirants attain immense bliss, which the sa'dhakas feel and cannot describe.  Then what is the proof that the one in sama'dhi actually experiences that bliss?  In this connection A'nanda Su'tram states:


Abha'vottara'nanda pratyaya' lambanirvrttih tasya prama'n'am.


[The lingering bliss which follows this state of vacuity is the proof of that state, the means of firm belief in that state.]


In the state of wakefulness all three stages of the mind, namely, conscious, subconscious and unconscious, remain active, but the subtler condition is inconspicuous due to the activeness of the cruder condition.  While dreaming, the crude or conscious mind remains dormant, the subconscious and the unconscious minds remain active.  During sleep [and during senselessness], only the unconscious mind remains active.  The opinion that the state of sleep is the state of the sense of vacuity is unacceptable to a subtle philosophical judgement, because at that time the works of both the conscious and the subconscious minds are done by the unconscious mind.  The real state of vacuity is verily the state of utter destruction of the mind, and so even savikalpa sama'dhi is not a state of vacuity.  Only the state of nirvikalpa is the state of vacuity.  In this state of absolute vacuity, the spiritual waves of exhilaration that fill the unit entity still continue to flow and trail on for some time even after that state of vacuity, that is, after the mind returns due to unserved sam'ska'ras [the consequential reactive momenta of one's past deeds].  These very trailing waves of exhilaration and joyous exuberance keep reminding the "mindful" sa'dhaka [intuitional practitioner] that his or her "mindless" state had been one of absolute bliss.


c.  1969


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Sa'marasya may be established in the psychic sphere if one constantly takes the ideation of one dhyeya [object of ideation].  In that case one's mind comes in close proximity to the Cosmic Mind, and gradually with the covering of the inner gaps the two minds will become one.  The spatial gap between the two minds has been removed, and at once the unit mind will go to the absolute world from the relative world.


This removal of the spatial gap in the psychic sphere depends solely upon the degree of keenness of one's desire to realize Parama'tma'.  To realize that Parama Purus'a, one need not look for the help of external objects -- name and fame, wealth and power, etc.  None of these can establish anybody in the spiritual stance.  The only thing essential is one's unshaken faith in one's goal, and persistent efforts.  That will please Parama Purus'a so much that He will most graciously lift the veil of Ma'ya' from the jiiva [unit being] and make him or her free.  Bhakti, or devotion, is the thing that counts in the spiritual sphere.



Demonstration


[Ba'ba'** touched the various cakras of a sa'dhaka (spiritual practitioner) and asked him whom he was seeing in each of his cakras.  The sa'dhaka replied that in every cakra he was seeing only Ba'ba'.  When the kun'da'linii shakti (latent divine force) reached the ana'hata cakra (fourth psycho-spiritual centre, or plexus, located at the midpoint of the chest), the sa'dhaka lost his outward consciousness.  He could not sit erect any longer.  Even then Ba'ba' went on saying, "Let the eyes not see anything external; let the ears not hear anything; let the nose not smell anything; let the tongue taste only parama rasa (divine taste); let the skin feel only the divine touch."  By now the sa'dhaka had lost all his external activity; even his sensory organs had lost their powers.  This physical world of ours lost its meaning and existence altogether to the sa'dhaka.  He was then a man of a different world.]


** An affectionate name for the author, used by the author's disciples.  -Eds.



The ordinary human mind, bound by the shackles of ripus (enemies) and pa'shas (fetters) is drawn easily to the external world; a person's sensory and motor organs tempt the person to enjoy crude physicality, but they cannot help in spiritual realization.  The real destination of human beings -- the world of supreme beatitude -- remains unknown to them.  To reach there, the mind must be free from the influence of the indriyas;* it must proceed towards the world of a'tma' [soul].  These very sense organs are the obstructions between the mind and the a'tma'.


* An indriya is a sensory or motor organ, together with its respective nerves, nerve fluid and site in the brain.  -Eds.



That is why when sa'dhakas land in the world of spirituality beyond the scope of the sense organs, of course by the grace of guru or Brahma, they enjoy great bliss.  Here there is no spatial gap between sa'dhaka and Parama'tma', between bhakta and Bhagava'n -- they belong to the same world.  There of course will be temporal and personal gaps.  When these also are removed, one attains nirvikalpa sama'dhi.  One need not depend upon external things to attain that stance; one is only required to develop kevala' bha'va [the feeling that only the Supreme Entity exists], and those who have it are really fortunate.  They may be so-called untouchables and low-bred, but still, they are the fittest recipients for God's grace.  Those who have not this love for God are wretched fellows, worse than animals, though they may be high-caste.


Can'd'alo'pi dvijahshres't'hah haribhaktipara'yanah;
Haribhaktivihiinashca vipro'pi shvapaca'dhamah.


[Even a can'd'ala (lowest caste), if blessed with love for the Lord, is far better than a high-born Brahman.  A high-born Vipra, a Brahman, if devoid of love for the Lord, is worse than a low-born person.]



1969, Ranchi


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DASHA', BHA'VA AND MAHA'BHA'VA


Humans, in spite of their numerous defects and loopholes, are divine beings.  Sometimes due to their momentary weaknesses they commit some mistakes or crimes; but after all, they are manifestations of God.  Everyone is a divine creature and everyone is destined to be perfect some day or other.  Whatever we are now is the result of our thoughts and actions in the past, and whatever we shall be in the future will be the result of what we think and do now.  Our past actions determine our present state, and our thoughts and actions now will determine our future.  We have all come from the invisible divine source and again after a limited period we shall go back to that invisible divine source.  No earthly object or human being is our permanent friend or relative.  Therefore, we should not lament over anything.


A'darshana' a'patitah punashca'darshanam' gatah;
Na'sao tava na tasya tvam' tatra vrtha' ka' parivedana'.


[Everything has come from the world of invisibility and will ultimately go back to the world of invisibility.  In fact, nothing belongs to you, nor do you belong to anyone.  So why should one unnecessarily bother about anything?]


Therefore wise persons conclude that the attainment of Brahma is the principal aim of human life; other aims are only secondary.  When people withdraw all their mental propensities from all crude worldly objects and direct them towards Brahma, they are bound to feel immense bliss.  Their constant contemplation of God lands them in the world of spiritual ecstasies.  In Vaes'n'ava [Vaishnavite] philosophy, these various states of spiritual ecstasy are described as dasha', bha'va' and maha'bha'va.


Each and every sa'dhaka, however black and inglorious their past might be, is entitled to spiritual realization.  Notorious criminals such as Ratnakar, Angulimala, etc., who are said to have committed numerous crimes in their past lives, were great devotees of God later, and became the finest of human beings.  The one thing that always counts is one's latent devotion and great desire to become pure and holy in life.  The rest is managed by God.  Since die-hard criminals of this type were changed into holy men in only a short time, there is no reason why others also might not be equally blessed by the Lord.  The Lord's blessings and mercy are always with men and women.  Just as God has his duty towards human beings, human beings have a duty towards God.  The duty of humans is to perform only those deeds which will give pleasure to God.  God never makes any distinction between a holy man and a so-called sinful man.  If God wills, that so-called sinful man may become a great devotee of God in no time.



Demonstration


Maha'bha'va


[A sa'dhaka (spiritual practitioner) was standing in front of Ba'ba'.  Ba'ba' simply touched the index finger of his one hand with that of his other.  The sa'dhaka immediately fell down and began to roll on the ground.  Ba'ba' described this sama'dhi as maha'bha'va, described in Vaes'n'ava philosophy.]


This is a kind of savikalpa sama'dhi.  The conscious, subconscious and unconscious minds become fused into one.  The eyes become fixed and red.  The person feels the tactual presence of Parama Purus'a, and he holds Him, as it were, tightly.


This maha'bha'va is clearly distinguished from dasha' and bha'va.  When the sa'dhaka clearly feels the thrill of divine existence around him at the time of sa'dhana', the state of bliss as experienced by the sa'dhaka is described as dasha'.  When the sa'dhaka feels the existence of the divine world around him, as also the source from which the divine existence comes, the state of bliss the sa'dhaka experiences at the time of sa'dhana' is bha'va.  Again, when the sa'dhaka feels the closest proximity of Parama Purus'a, even within his embrace, that bha'va is called maha'bha'va.


At the time of dasha', the sa'dhaka feels bliss within and falls down, and during bha'va, the sa'dhaka feels proximity to God, feels great bliss and falls down.


At the time of maha'bha'va, the sa'dhaka feels the tactual presence of Parama Purus'a and falls down.  At that time, every nerve-cell, every nerve-fibre and every pore of the human body feels the divine touch.


The entire [extent] of the conscious, subconscious and unconscious minds becomes filled with devotion.  But devotional expression is much more in the heart, the sentiment being strongly aroused.  During floods, the rivers, tanks, pools, etc., all become filled and begin overflowing.  Similarly, the mind and heart of the sa'dhaka are filled to the brim with devotion when flooded by bha'va.


The sa'dhaka attains states of dasha' and bha'va according to sam'ska'ras.  Again, according to one's dasha' and bha'va, one attains maha'bha'va.  That is why one who has attained maha'bha'va becomes sometimes restless, sometimes calm, now laughs and now weeps.



Demonstration


[Ba'ba' called one sa'dhaka and aroused his devotion by touching his ana'hata cakra (fourth psycho-spiritual centre, or plexus, located at the midpoint of the chest).  The sa'dhaka felt the divine proximity and bliss within.  He immediately lay down.  He felt the tactual presence of God.  But he was a bit restless, according to his sam'ska'ras (mental reactive momenta).  He was in maha'bha'va.


Another sa'dhaka also experienced the state of maha'bha'va.  He was calm and placid, according to his sam'ska'ras.]


The sa'dhaka feels waves of devotion in body, mind and heart, and feels so much proximity to God that he completely forgets his physical existence.  At that time, the dha'ma, or stratum, where he moves mentally is Nitya Vrnda'bana or Vaekun't'ha.


1969, Ranchi  


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The state of non-discriminatory knowledge is called samprajina'ta sama'dhi.


     First let us analyse the difference between samprajina'ta and savikalpa sama'dhi.  Samprajina'ta 'is derived as sampra - jina' + kta.  The derivate meaning of the word is "proper and excellent knowledge."  And savikalpa is derived s+vi-kalp+al.  During the state of savikalpa sama'dhi the sa'dhaka has a feeling that there is a second entity besides Parama'tma.  Hence this sama'dhi is called savikalpa sama'dhi.


     The human mind, performs primarily two kinds of actions -- sam'kalpa'tmaka and vikalpa'tmaka.  When one decides, to do something it is called the sam'kalpa'tmaka state of mind, and when the samkalpa or resolution is materialised in the practical field, it is called vikalpa'tmaka action.  During the state of samprajina'ta sama'dhi, the unit citta is converted into Cognitive Faculty and thus the vikalpa'tmaka action of mind is suspended, although the samkalpa'tmaka state of mind is still quite active.  But during the state of savikalpa sama'dhi, the samkalpa'tmaka state of mind remains only nominally active.  And during the state of nirvikalpa sama'dhi both the samkalpa'tmaka and vikalpa'tmaka states of the mind are completely suspended.  In that state of complete mindlessness, the sa'dhaka's mind cannot function in any way, either in the individual sphere or collective sphere; and as one loses psychic vitality the nerve cells, nerve fibres and sense organs also stop functioning.


(On 14th May, 1970, at Ranchi jagrti, a certain sa'dhaka experience this type of nirvikalpa sama'dhi in the presence of about twenty-five other sa'dhakas.  That concerning sa'dhaka first sat in siddha'sana with the spinal chord erect, and then began to practice dhya'na on all the cakras -- mu'la'dhar, svadhista'na, man'ipur, ana'hata, vishudha.  During that period he had a unique experience.  He felt within that his dear object of meditation was dancing with two skulls.  Thereafter, he raised his mind to a'jina cakra and began to practice dhya'na in the prescribed dhya'na mudra.  Next, when he concentrated his mind on lalana' cakra, the function of the ten sense organs of his body was suspended.  The sa'dhaka lost his mind in the Cosmic Mind and became one with the Cosmic Mind.  He looked peaceful and serene.)


It was noted in the aforesaid instance that his indriyas and unit mind totally lost their power of functioning.  And in the total absence of the mind-entity the unit mind can have no notion of duality.  "Tasya sthitih ama'nasikes'u".  This is why this sama'dhi is called nirvikalpa samadhi.  "A'tmani mahadaham' citta'na'm' pran'a'she nirguna'sthitih nirvikalpa sama'dhi va'" (A'nanda Su'tram).


     Some sa'dhakas' minds, the moment they reach the pituitary gland, stop functioning.  The minds of some sa'dhakas cross all the cakras, rising in gradual ascendancy from the lowest cakra, and ultimately reach the sahasra'ra cakra.  This is the highest state of realisation in the spiritual sphere.  When the unit mind goes beyond the jurisdiction of the indriyas, and the seeds of reactive momenta have been completely destroyed, it becomes altogether non-existent.  In that state of complete mindlessness the jiiva gets completely merged in Shiva.  The mind, after reaching the sahasra'ra (pineal plexus) does not return.  And due to the obliteration of spatial differences the sa'dhaka dies a physical death.


     "Pa'shabaddho bhavejjiivo pa'shmukto bhavecchivo".


     But the minds of those whose sam'ska'ras are not yet completely burnt up, descend again after remaining in a trance for a certain period.  Some sa'dhakas' minds, after reaching the stage of kala', stop functioning.  Under natural circumstances these sa'dhakas remain without any external body-consciousness for about five or six hours.  If the mind rises still higher, they can remain unconscious for 24 hours.


     Nature of the post-trance state:  After the sama'dhi or trance is broken, two completely different pictures of the different worlds present themselves before the sa'dhaka.  In the inner-life he or she experiences an unbroken flow of bliss -- an endless ocean of bliss, with external tranquility and indescribable sweetness.  On the other hand, the outer world appears to be dry, desolate and unsubstantial.  In the inner life, he feels the most intimate contact and sweetest touch of the loving Father, but in the outer world, he or she feels detached from the original abode -- the abode of eternal bliss.  So this world of inferences appears to be dry and dreary.  One feels difficulty in adjusting with the external world.  The pangs of separation from the Lord affect one's mind.  As a result, sometimes one bursts into laughter, sometimes one breaks into sobs.  To normal people his or her behaviour appears to be abnormal, but actually it reflects a very high stage of spiritual attainment.  Soon afterwards, he or she attains the non-attributional stance -- the highest state of spiritual attainment.  Attaining this highest stage, by the Macrocosmic Grace, the sa'dhaka establishes himself in the original stance of the Supreme Entity - Parama Brahma.


Tattva Kaomudii Part 3


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[Ba'ba' called one da'da' to sit and do meditation.  Ba'ba' touched him on the back of the neck, and then told him to hold the shawl of another da'da' near him.  Ba'ba' said:  Touch it, see it, smell it -- saturate your indriyas* with it.  [The da'da' did as Ba'ba' told him.] Now close your eyes, and withdraw your mind from the shawl, from the external world.  What do you see?


* Organs, in this case sensory organs.  -Eds.


[Da'da':  "Darkness."  ]


Go deeper, still deeper.  Cast away the darkness.  Can you do it?


[Da'da':  "No, Ba'ba'."]


Try to find a path through the darkness.  Is it becoming less dark now?


[Da'da':  "Yes, Ba'ba'."]


Now think of that shawl again, go deeper into it -- what is it?  What do you see?


[Da'da':  "It is dust, Ba'ba'."** ]


** Abhidhya'na sama'dhi is attained through a meditation process wherein physical objects come to be perceived in increasingly subtle ways.  Thus a sa'dhaka might perceive only the normal solid integrity of a shawl when his or her mind is in a normal state; but when his or her mind becomes a bit elevated, might perceive the shawl as having been "powdered down", or pulverized, into dust.  Later on it will appear still further powdered down into its component subatomic particles ("ions" in philosophical language).  And finally when the mind becomes maximally elevated, the sa'dhaka will perceive a solid object as the consciousness that it intrinsically is.  At that stage the touch of a solid object will be like the touch of Supreme Consciousness, carrying with it the bliss of Supreme Consciousness.  -Eds.


Yes .  .  .  his mind has moved slightly upward now.  [The da'da''s face changed.  It was obvious that he was experiencing great bliss.] If he remains much longer in this state he will experience abhidhya'na sama'dhi.  [Giving him a pen] How is this?


[Da'da':  "Ohhh .  .  .  so sweet, Ba'ba', so beautiful!"]


[Giving him the shawl again] And this?


[The da'da''s face glowed with delight:  "Oh, it smells like delicious perfume!"]


[Ba'ba' said to everyone:  Shall I give you that state?


[Everyone (eagerly):  "Yes, yes, Ba'ba'!"]


[Ba'ba' said laughingly:  But then you will do no work!


1969, Ranchi


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     To control the various propensities of human mind there are various glands and sub-glands which form certain nerve centers inside the spinal column.  They are called plexii in Ta'ntra.  Each and every plexus regulates a certain number of propensities.  The hormones secreted from these particular glands influence the concerning sub- glands, the other lower glands, and the vrttis controlled by their respective glands.


The food and drink we take every day is converted into rasa (fluid), rakta, flesh, fat, bone marrow and lymph etc.  Ultimately the lymph is converted into hormones of various types.  The special hormone secreted from the spiritual aspirant's pineal gland flows into the pituitary plexus.  At that time if one's mind remains engaged in pure spiritual thoughts that hormone flows from the pineal gland down the left side to the pituitary gland, and then to other plexii, glands and sub-glands, nerve fibres, nerve cells, veins and arteries, etc.  This excessive flow of pineal hormone revitalises all the lower plexii.  On the other hand, if one's mind remain pre-occupied with crude thoughts then the pineal hormone gets burnt up at the pituitary plexus.  The lower plexii and glands, due to the lack of supply of pineal secretion, do not enjoy any spiritual bliss.  But when the pineal hormone flows through the pituitary plexus to the lowest plexii, the undeveloped plexii of the body become healthier and revitalised.  As a rule the upper chakras control the lower ones.  So the svadhista'na chakra controls the mu'la'dha'ra chakra, the manipura chakra controls the svadhista'na and mu'ladha'ra chakras, the ana'hata controls the man'ipura, svadhista'na and muladha'ra chakras, and the a'jina' controls all the lower cakras.


     At the time of pineal secretion if a sa'dhaka goes into sama'dhi -- he or she visualises or experiences a kind of divine aura around the ana'hata chakra.  The sa'dhaka realises that he or she is experiencing a divine dip in the holy aura, and feels indescribable bliss in the heart.  In that exalted state of realisation every object of this universe seems to be extremely sweet, and one derives immense bliss which no worldly object could ever provide.  The sun's rays, the moon beams, the land, the water, in fact everything appears to be emanating continuous stream of blissful nectar.


     Idam' ma'nusam'sarves'a'm' bhu'ta'na'm'
Madhvasya' ma'nu's'asya sarva'ni bhu'ta'ni madhuh
Aya'ma'tma' sarves'a'm bhu'ta'na'm' madhvasya a'tmanah
Sarvani bhu'ta'ni madhuh.


Even a sworn enemy appears to be very sweet at that time.  Everything is sweet.  In Vaesnava philosophy this stage of sama'dhi is called madhura bha'va.  In Ta'ntra it is called aninda'nanda rasa sama'dhi.


Characteristics of Aninda'nanda Rasa Sama'dhi


The different plexii of the body get revitalized due to abundant hormone secretion and become more active than before.  The sa'dhaka enjoys immense bliss.  Due to excessive feelings of joy the nerve cells and the nerve fibres become ineffective.  A very sweet relation of love between the devotee and Parama Purus'a is established.  Throughout the blissful experience a sweet taste is felt.  This state is one of the thirty-two prominent states of bliss experienced by highly developed sa'dhakas.  The special characteristics of this sama'dhi is that it cannot be attained by one's own personal efforts, but only through the grace of the Guru.


Of course, to attain supreme spiritual salvation it is not necessary for a sa'dhaka to experience any sama'dhi at all.  For example, a passengers travelling on a Calcutta-bound train may or will not be able to see the sights of Jamalpur or Bhagalpur towns if the doors and window-shutters are closed.  Although the passengers are unaware of the towns they are passing through, they still reach their destinations.  In the spiritual world also, the sa'dhaka, while ideating on the Supreme will certainly pass through the different stages of realisation without necessarily being aware of it.  When the all-merciful Taraka Brahma physically comes to Earth in the form of a Sadguru He helps the deserving sa'dhakas to attain this type of samadhi.  Even when He is physically absent in this world He helps the deserving persons to attain this sama'dhi through other gurus.


30 April 1969 Ranchi Ja'grti
Tattva Kaomudii Part 2



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Those who want to become one with Parama Purus'a must be free from spatial, temporal and personal bondages.  But in the physical sphere the spatial factor shall exist; in the psychic sphere also there will remain some bondage; but in the spiritual sphere it is quite possible to remove all bondages.


This expressed world is relative.  One aspiring to be established in the Absolute must go beyond the scope of relativity.  But the question is -- how to do that?


While doing sa'dhana', the mind frequently runs after external things.  It is very difficult to concentrate the mind, which is by nature restless, on a certain object or idea.  Why is the mind fixed on a particular point in sa'dhana'?  Because that point is the veritable link between the relative world and the Absolute; the point exists where the relative world ends and the Absolute begins.  This point is representative of the Cosmic Entity.  Once this point is controlled, the attainment of the highest state of spirituality becomes easy.  To control this point means to be one with Parama'tma'.


Therefore to come out from the scope of the relative world, one must concentrate on this point.  One will surely continue to suffer in the sorrows and miseries of the relative world till one's mind becomes one-pointed.


Abhedajina'na*


* Integral knowledge, "the knowledge that comes from transcending bhedas, or differences".  -Eds.


What are the criteria of relativity?  Wherever there are svaja'tiiya, vija'tiiya and svagata bheda (intra-specific, inter-specific and intra-structural differences), we shall call that entity relative.  The moment these differences are removed, the relative entity merges into the Absolute.


Vija'tiiya:  Suppose in an orchard there are various kinds of tree, such as mango trees, ja'm trees, jackfruit trees, etc.  Though all are trees, the different trees are vija'tiiya.


Svaja'tiiya:  Suppose someone has gone to a garden of mango trees.  He will see there are many varieties of mango hanging from the branches of various trees.  (There are varieties of mango, such as lem'r'a', fazli, Bomba'i, begunphuli, etc.) Though all are mangoes, difference in variety is svaja'tiiya.


Svagata:  When one looks at a mango tree, one will see that in the mango tree itself there are branches, leaves, flowers, fruits, etc.  The tree is one, but even the one tree contains many parts, which are svagata.


Whenever there are the above-mentioned differences, there is the relative world, and when the differences are no more, there is sa'marasya (equipoise).  Sa'marasya may be established in the psychic and spiritual spheres but never in the physical sphere.


Daeshika Vyavadha'na Vilopa*


* "The obliteration of the spatial gap" (between the unit mind and the Cosmic Mind).  -Eds.


Sa'marasya may be established in the psychic sphere if one constantly takes the ideation of one dhyeya [object of ideation].  In that case one's mind comes in close proximity to the Cosmic Mind, and gradually with the covering of the inner gaps the two minds will become one.  The spatial gap between the two minds has been removed, and at once the unit mind will go to the absolute world from the relative world.


This removal of the spatial gap in the psychic sphere depends solely upon the degree of keenness of one's desire to realize Parama'tma'.  To realize that Parama Purus'a, one need not look for the help of external objects -- name and fame, wealth and power, etc.  None of these can establish anybody in the spiritual stance.  The only thing essential is one's unshaken faith in one's goal, and persistent efforts.  That will please Parama Purus'a so much that He will most graciously lift the veil of Ma'ya' from the jiiva [unit being] and make him or her free.  Bhakti, or devotion, is the thing that counts in the spiritual sphere.




Demonstration


[Ba'ba'** touched the various cakras of a sa'dhaka (spiritual practitioner) and asked him whom he was seeing in each of his cakras.  The sa'dhaka replied that in every cakra he was seeing only Ba'ba'.  When the kun'da'linii shakti (latent divine force) reached the ana'hata cakra (fourth psycho-spiritual centre, or plexus, located at the midpoint of the chest), the sa'dhaka lost his outward consciousness.  He could not sit erect any longer.  Even then Ba'ba' went on saying, "Let the eyes not see anything external; let the ears not hear anything; let the nose not smell anything; let the tongue taste only parama rasa (divine taste); let the skin feel only the divine touch."  By now the sa'dhaka had lost all his external activity; even his sensory organs had lost their powers.  This physical world of ours lost its meaning and existence altogether to the sa'dhaka.  He was then a man of a different world.]


** An affectionate name for the author, used by the author's disciples.  -Eds.

After samadhi, certainly savikalpa and nirvikalpa samadhis, a sadhaka witnesses each and every thing, each and every being as multiple forms of the singularity of all things.  Sadhaka may also witness past lives of others, from the dimensionless point from which all emanate through each and every mineral, plant, animal and human incarnation, along with any future incarnations and their inevitable liberation -- all occurring simultaneously.  


The ordinary human mind, bound by the shackles of ripus (enemies) and pa'shas (fetters) is drawn easily to the external world; a person's sensory and motor organs tempt the person to enjoy crude physicality, but they cannot help in spiritual realization.  The real destination of human beings -- the world of supreme beatitude -- remains unknown to them.  To reach there, the mind must be free from the influence of the indriyas;* it must proceed towards the world of a'tma' [soul].  These very sense organs are the obstructions between the mind and the a'tma'.


* An indriya is a sensory or motor organ, together with its respective nerves, nerve fluid and site in the brain.  -Eds.


That is why when sa'dhakas land in the world of spirituality beyond the scope of the sense organs, of course by the grace of guru or Brahma, they enjoy great bliss.  Here there is no spatial gap between sa'dhaka and Parama'tma', between bhakta and Bhagava'n -- they belong to the same world.  There of course will be temporal and personal gaps.  When these also are removed, one attains nirvikalpa sama'dhi.  One need not depend upon external things to attain that stance; one is only required to develop kevala' bha'va [the feeling that only the Supreme Entity exists], and those who have it are really fortunate.  They may be so-called untouchables and low-bred, but still, they are the fittest recipients for God's grace.  Those who have not this love for God are wretched fellows, worse than animals, though they may be high-caste.


Can'd'alo'pi dvijahshres't'hah haribhaktipara'yanah;
Haribhaktivihiinashca vipro'pi shvapaca'dhamah.


[Even a can'd'ala (lowest caste), if blessed with love for the Lord, is far better than a high-born Brahman.  A high-born Vipra, a Brahman, if devoid of love for the Lord, is worse than a low-born person.]


1969, Ranchi


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Last night I said that in our psycho-spiritual process, our starting point is within the realm of time, space and person.  And our goal, for which I use the term 'Supreme Noumenal entity', is beyond the reach of time, pace and person.


Now in the course of occult practice, the bondages of the mutative principle, static principle and the sentient principle become loose.  When the bondage of the static principle disappears, the aspirant enjoys a particular nature of bliss.  There, that is, in that stage, there remains no static bondage, but the bondages of the mutative and sentient principle are there.  Then the bondage of the mutative principle disappears.  And finally, when the bondage of he sentient principle disappears, man becomes one with his object of ideation.


Now when, in the primordial phase, after starting in the physical sphere, the aspirant is just about to cross the cordon of the static principle, he enjoys a special nature of pleasure.  We may say 'pleasure', because it is not the Supreme beatitude, but is a modified form of beatitude.  Not purely pleasure, something higher, something subtler, something more charming, more beautiful - more than pleasure.  That enjoyment, that psycho-spiritual enjoyment, is known as 'Dasha'' in Sam'skrta.


In the Dasha' phase, the aspirant enjoys a sort of inner pleasure, but his sensory and motor organs fail to express it.  Even language is too weak to convey the experience.  That stage of the human mind is called 'Dasha''.  The mind tries to express something but the vocal chord cannot produce the appropriate sound.  In that stage the aspirant may create a sound like 'hah-ah-ah', like this, but no definite language is produced.


Just when the aspirant crosses the cordon of the Supreme static point, just on the other side, he feels another type of pleasure.  And in that case he feels that he is with his God, he is with the Supreme entity.  The Universe is also there, but he feels that he has become a strong person - physically, mentally, spiritually - and under such circumstances, he doesn't care a fig for what the world says.  This phase is called 'Bha'va'.  When a man is in Bha'va, it will be very easy for you to know it, because there will be a certain expression, not in the vocal chord, but from here [taps the Ana'hata Cakra].  Perhaps you have seen someone saying 'Ba'ba'!  Ba'ba'!', saying like this.  Have you seen it?  Because the expression comes form this point [indicates Ana'hata Cakra again].


Then when the aspirant crosses the cordon of the mutative principle, that stage is known as 'Bha'va Sama'dhi.'  At that stage the aspirant feels that he is with his Cosmic Goal.  There is no Universe.  At that stage, he knows the entitative existence of the Universe.  But he feels that he is with his Lord.  He enjoys Divine bliss, but it becomes very difficult for him to express, that is, he cannot express it.


In the final phase, when he crosses the jurisdiction of the sentient principle, he feels that there is no duality, that is, the duality of him and his Lord, this duality, disappears.  He feels there is only one existence-he feels 'he is' or he feels 'the Lord is.'  'I am with my Lord' - 'I' and 'Lord' - this duality disappears.  This is called 'Maha'bha'va'.


Now all higher Sama'dhis are different experiences of this Maha'bha'va.  It depends on the style of ideation.  But when one attains the stance of Maha'bha'va it is not at all difficult for he aspirant to enjoy other kinds of Sama'dhi.  Not Bha'va Sama'dhi, but actual Sama'dhi, that is, the highest form of Sama'dhi.


But all those Sama'dhis which are within the boundaries of the sentient principle are qualified sama'dhis, attributional sama'dhis.  And the mind remains - either in the form of the microcosm or in the form of the Macrocosm, the ectoplasmic stuff is there.  But when the aspirant brings his mind to a pointed form, to a pinnacled form, to an apexed form, the mind, the ectoplasmic stuff disappears due to extreme concentration, and under such circumstances the Supreme Cognitive Faculty remains.  This is called 'non-qualified, non-attributional sama'dhi' - 'Nirvikalpa Sama'dhi' in Sam'skrta.


By dint of Japa Kriya', Japa, one attains the attributional stage of Sama'dhi, and by dint of one's Dhya'na one attains the non-attributional stance of Sama'dhi, which is the goal of each and every individual of this Universe.  You should know it and you should do accordingly.  


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In philosophical parlance, sama'dhi means unification of the unit mind with the Cosmic Mind, or merger of the unit mind into the Cosmic Mind.  Ordinarily, the conscious mind performs physical actions through sense organs and nerve-cells and nerve-fibres, while the subconscious performs thinking, recollection, etc., and the unconscious is all-knowing.  In sama'dhi, the three chambers of the mind are fused into one.  During sama'dhi, the mind remains full of knowledge (prajina').  This is a positive state; though the mind remains inactive, still it is full of knowledge.


Mrtyu, death, on the other hand, is a negative state.  Because of lack of psycho-physical parallelism, the sense organs, the nerve-cells, nerve-fibres, etc., will stop functioning, as a result of which the entire body will be as inert as a block of wood, that is, hardly distinguishable from matter.  All the expressions of mental faculties become suspended.  It is a state of complete lifelessness devoid of any prajina'.


Sama'dhi is not possible merely through one's own efforts.  It is absolutely dependent on the grace of Parama'tma'.  Death is a providential arrangement.  Man must make efforts to attain sama'dhi.  So far as death is concerned, it will come as a matter of course.  Through this arrangement of death, Parama Purus'a is continuing the flow of creation; otherwise this creation would have stopped.  It is natural that when people lose their dear and near ones, they feel the pangs of bereavement.  When operated upon, patients certainly feel pain, but all these things are unavoidable.  One who is born must die.  Anything, once created, must undergo change and, ultimately, meet destruction.


Suppose somebody does something which may cause some physical harm, should we call it the sa'dhana' of death or of prajina'?  Those who subject themselves to all sorts of tortures, who stand in deep water on chilly nights for hours together, are certainly not making spiritual progress.  Even those who are taking holy baths on Ma'ghii Purn'ima' [the full moon of mid-February to mid-March] are not enhancing their spiritual progress.  If merely a dip in the Ganges made one holy, then the fish that are always in the river would be the most virtuous and holy.  Pilgrims do not gain morally or spiritually from their holy baths, but, on the contrary, have to suffer bitter experiences -- physical troubles, loss of money, mental anxiety, and humiliation at the hands of robbers and thieves.  Spiritual elevation is possible by introverting all the mental propensities and directing them towards the Supreme Desideratum (one's dhyeya [object of ideation]) and thus becoming one with their most intimate friend in the Universe.



Demonstration

[Ba'ba' called one sa'dhaka and told him to concentrate his mind on his toes and do the prescribed dhya'nam* there, and then at his heels.  Next he was told to practise dhya'nam on mu'la'dha'ra, sva'dhis't'ha'na, man'ipura and ana'hata,** and establish a devotional relationship with Parama'tma'.  Next he was told to do dhya'nam on vishuddha cakra.*]


* Meditation in which the psyche is directed towards Consciousness.  -Eds.
** The first four (lowermost) psycho-spiritual centres, or plexi.  -Eds.
* The fifth psycho-spiritual centre, or plexus, located at the throat.  -Eds.


The more the mind gets concentrated, the more the mind goes deep, the more bliss a person will experience.  Ultimately, they will become one with the Supreme Mind.  On their part there will be no physical or psychic effort.  They will have living bodies which, without any movement, will look like dead bodies.  This is sa'ru'pya sama'dhi -- the individual and Parama'tma' become one.  In this state, the sa'dhaka's mind remains full of knowledge.  During sama'dhi, the body does not become as stiff as it becomes in the case of death.


At the time of sa'dhana', all the energy becomes concentrated and we can see the expression of that energy.  Consider the Indian military, which may be stationed in Patna, Calcutta, Lucknow, Delhi, etc.  Now if the entire military force of the whole of India is concentrated in Delhi alone, the whole of India except Delhi will become devoid of military power.


[In order to demonstrate this point, Ba'ba' snatched away from the sa'dhaka the vital energies from the mu'la'dha'ra, sva'dhis't'ha'na, man'ipura, ana'hata; and then went up to the highest regions.  For some time the lower regions moved a little and then became motionless.  In this case, the power was not taken out of the body, it was only shifted from lower parts to higher parts.  Consequently, the lower regions became inactive and devoid of vital energy.]  


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In contrast to other cakra images common today,
this image illustrates a more accurate
approximation of the colors of the cakras.
The jiiva [unit being] has its origin in Shiva, and the jiiva has the potentiality to merge again into Shiva.  What separates the two are the bandhanas [bondages], the pa'shas [fetters], which in the human body are represented by the cakras.  As soon as these cakras are pierced and these bandhanas broken, the jiiva becomes Shiva


In the ordinary state of human life the mind remains at the level of the mu'la'dha'ra cakra.* This cakra is called man'ipadma by the Buddhists.  (Padma because of the lotus-like shape.) The Tibetan prayer Onm' man'ipadme hummm refers to the mu'la'dha'ra, the starting point of sa'dhana', with hummm referring to the struggle that we call sa'dhana'.


* First psycho-spiritual centre, or plexus, located at the base of the spine.  The next five cakras are located at the base of the genital organ, at the navel, at the midpoint of the chest, at the throat, and at the trikuĂ­i (between the eyebrows), respectively.  -Eds.


When sa'dhana' consists in concentration on this cakra, the feeling that accompanies the mastery of the cakra is called sa'lokya.  This feeling that the jiiva is not alone, but that the Lord is with the person, is a sign that the mu'la'dha'ra has been crossed.  The colour visible here is the golden yellow of the earth and the sound is like the tick-tick of the cricket.  The shape is square.


The feeling at crossing the next higher cakra, the sva'dhis't'ha'na cakra, is that of sa'miipya, the feeling of nearness.  The sound resembles that of the pa'yala, bells affixed to a dancer's legs.  The colour is a watery white and the shape the half-moon.


The crossing of the man'ipura cakra produces the feeling of close touch, sa'yujya.  The sound is like a sweet flute, the colour is red, and the shape is triangular.


When the ana'hata cakra is crossed the shape is hexagonal or circular.  The colour is first blue and then greenish.  The sound resembles that of a [gong] or at times that of the sea.  The feeling is that of sa'ru'pya, a feeling of sameness.


The crossing of the vishuddha cakra produces the feeling of sa'rs't'hi, the feeling of "I am He."  There is no particular shape and there is a mixture of various colours.  The earlier sounds of bell, flute and sea develop into the beginning of the sound onm, and this becomes clearer and clearer until the full-fledged onm sound comes at last.


When the a'jina' cakra at the trikut'i is crossed, there is no feeling of "I" or "He", but only the feeling of "You" ("Thou art").  The remaining feeling is now simply of oneness.  This feeling is called kaevalya, and there is no sound and there is no colour, because there is no expression.  The state of kaevalya has some internal stages, and the last stage is called nirbiija nirvikalpa.


In sa'dhana', as the mind ascends higher and higher, piercing one cakra after another, the shape at the cakra changes, the colour changes, the sound changes, and the very ectoplasm changes subtly.  Finally, once the One Supreme Ultimate, which is beyond time, space, and person, is reached, there remains nothing to change.


Those who proclaim any philosophy other than the ultimate and everlasting preach falsity.  Those who profess a faith claiming to be the last word from the last prophet follow an incorrect line.  Prout [Progressive Utilization Theory] philosophy is ahead of such philosophies and faiths.  As is stated in its fifth principle, it is a philosophy which not only sets its goal as the ultimate subjectivity (Brahma, who is unchangeable and eternal), but also adopts the objective course of adjustment according to time, space and person.


[Ba'ba' demonstrated these basic points by touching and sending into sama'dhi four persons.  He also showed that through the grace of the Almighty as represented by guru krpa' (the guru's grace), the evolutionary rise through sa'dhana' can be accelerated, and the slow walk can be maximized into a gallop.  In this way sama'dhi can be induced from any cakra.  But a success easily gained may not be fully appreciated and valued.  Therefore, normally the sa'dhaka should be allowed to work out his success through the hard way of diligent sa'dhana'.


The demonstration further showed that while the sama'dhi experienced remains in the subconscious, sa'dhakas may manage to keep some control over their bodies; they may stand in the beginning and sit later on without help.  But the unconscious helps only slightly and indirectly in the subconscious mind; therefore, once the subconscious fully gives way to the unconscious, the control is lost and the body falls.  That is why sa'dhana' has to be performed sitting in a firm a'sana (posture) and on a blanket or other protection, so that, should the body fall, there may be the least possible injury to the head.


Further, Ba'ba' advised all sa'dhakas not to retire from society into the life of a recluse in the forest.  The sa'dhaka should help other persons spiritually.  Those engaged in worldly life should serve mankind in worldly matters, while those leading spiritual lives should serve humanity in the development of their spiritual potential.  Prout wants maximum utilization of the spiritual potential of the unit as well as of the universe.  Ba'ba' said that the avadhu'ta who had been one of the media of the demonstration had been a great saint in his previous life, his only sin having been his self-centred abstention from any spiritual help to mankind.]


1969, Ranchi


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Atima'nasa yoga sama'dhi


[A good sa'dhaka (spiritual practitioner) was the medium for the demonstration of this sama'dhi.  He was first asked by Ba'ba' to examine the audience carefully with open eyes and to estimate roughly the number of individuals.  He estimated there were about two hundred fifty individuals.  He further stated that as he beheld all those various individuals, his mind registered different feelings and became disturbed.  Then Ba'ba' made him close his eyes and touched him.


On being asked what he saw with closed eyes, he responded, "Unity."  He saw nothing but oneness.


Then Ba'ba' asked him to concentrate on the various cakras, from mu'la'dha'ra upward, and each time to try to imagine or see oneness.  As the cakras under concentration rose higher and higher, the sa'dhaka said that he was feeling oneness more.  Moreover, his mind was becoming more and more tranquil, in contrast to the disturbance he had felt earlier when viewing the audience.  Finally, when his concentration reached and surpassed the a'jina' cakra at the trikut'i (between the eyebrows), the sa'dhaka got more and more deeply immersed in sama'dhi till at last he lost control of his body.


Ba'ba' explained that the Cosmos was, externally, a phenomenon of analysis (vishles'an'a), diversity, clash, disturbance of mind and materialism (jad'ata); and internally, a matter of synthesis (sam'shles'an'a), oneness, peace, tranquillity and spirituality (a'dhya'tma).  Apara' knowledge, that is, the knowledge of the external objectivity, is necessary for worldly activities, but para' knowledge, that is, the knowledge of matters internal, is supreme and superior.  Apara' knowledge should be controlled by para' knowledge.  Educational institutions where only apara' knowledge is imparted are not sufficient.  Side by side the controlling para' knowledge must be taught.  In fact the para' knowledge should have precedence over the apara' knowledge, because uncontrolled by para' knowledge, apara' knowledge will tend to produce literate brutes who might misuse their knowledge of worldly things.  Controlled by para' knowledge, apara' knowledge will be used for the welfare and elevation of all of humankind.


The Supreme Self is the peak of subjectivity.  Because He is the goal, our approach in each and every worldly activity should be subjective; however, in the actual physical performance of activity we will have to follow the method of objective adjustment.  Even when dealing with the many, one must remember that, behind the many, there is the One.  We must never lose sight of the fact that the many are but the facets of the One.  Even a criminal whom we may have to punish is, ultimately, a chip off the same block, Brahma.  Thus orientated internally, our physical actions will always remain moral, ethical and spiritual.  There will be no sins committed and there will be no degradation of the soul, even if a physical action outwardly damages or destroys someone.


In the end Ba'ba' exhorted every Tantrika to work tirelessly with a smiling face in the service of mankind and at the same time devotedly and constantly perform sa'dhana'.  Then he promised everyone his grace and the blessing of sama'dhi that the aforesaid sa'dhaka was enjoying.  The name of the sama'dhi that he was enjoying was atima'nasa yoga sama'dhi.]


1969, Ranchi  


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[Today's topic of discussion was the differences among sama'dhi, senselessness and sleep.]


Sama'dhi:  While practising spiritual sa'dhana', the mind is progressively withdrawn from the physical to the psychic and then to the spiritual.  The trend in spiritual practice is to merge the extroversal propensities of the indriyas [sensory and motor organs] into the citta [objective mind, mind-stuff], the citta into the aham [doer "I"], the aham into the mahat ["I exist"], and the mahat into consciousness.  In the case of sama'dhi, the conscious mind merges into the subconscious, and the subconscious into the unconscious.* In the case of savikalpa sama'dhi, the unit unconscious mind becomes one with the Supreme Mind, whereas in nirvikalpa sama'dhi the unit unconscious mind becomes one with Supreme Consciousness.


* The conscious, subconscious and unconscious minds, also known as the crude, subtle and causal minds, are the three layers of the citta.  -Eds.



Senselessness:  The conscious mind functions with the help of both nerve-cells and nerve-fibres, while the subconscious and the unconscious function with the help of nerve-cells only.  If these nerve-cells and nerve-fibres should stop functioning due to physical or mental [abnormalities], then the conscious, subconscious and unconscious will also stop functioning.  This cessation of functioning produces the state of senselessness.


Sleep:  Due to excessive physical and mental labour, the nerve-cells and nerve-fibres become fatigued and demand relaxation, forcing the conscious mind to cease functioning and producing the state of sleep.  Often the subconscious ceases also, leaving only the unconscious to continue the work of the brain.  However, sometimes the nerve-cells begin functioning during the latter part of the night, due to sudden heat in the back portion of the cranium or to an upward movement of gastric wind.  The subconscious mind accordingly starts thinking or remembering, producing dreams.  In the absence of the functioning of the conscious mind, these products of the subconscious are accepted as true and practical.  Sometimes the dreamer actually believes that he is flying, for the non-functioning of the conscious mind prevents him from perceiving this idea to be pure imagination.  Some people become extremely frightened by their dreams and produce inarticulate mutterings of fear; at times dreamers even die of heart failure.  To assist a person out of a disturbing dream it helps to bring the person's hands or feet into contact with the ground, for this aids the conscious mind in beginning to function again.



c.  1969


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     It is said that if Parama Purus'a can be attained through Yoga then what is the place of devotion (Bhakti) in the life of a spiritual sa'dhaka?  Now let us see what is Yoga? 

 "Yogashcittavrtti Nirodhah" -- Yoga is the suspension of the propensities (vrttis) of mind.  What is Niruddha?  It is said that under five circumstances the mind becomes steady -- Ks'ipta, Mu'r'ha, Viks'ipta, Eka'gra and Nirodha.  What is Ks'ipta?  When mind becomes extremely restless because of crude propensities, then the restless mind tends towards only one object.  While tending towards one object, it gets itself concentrated (Sama'dhistha) all of a sudden therein.  That absorption of mind into that object is transitory.  This state is known as Ks'ipta.  You might have noticed in your personal life that if you come in clash with a person or if you become angry with him, throughout the day the picture of that individual repeatedly comes to your mind and you fail to concentrate your mind on any object other than that individual.  This state of mind is Ks'ipta Sama'dhi.


     The next one is Mu'r'ha.  Where there is attachment to or fear from some object (judged minutely fear is included in attachment ), the object even in that case repeatedly creeps into mind.  As for instance, a man of Gazipur working in Bombay is repeatedly haunted with the idea that he should have his office just like the one at Gazipur.  Gazipur all the time haunts his mind.  It means that the object comes to mind very easily, This state is called Mu'r'ha.


The third one is Viks'ipta.  Viks'ipta is Abha'va'tmika' Sama'dhi.  Suppose the mind is absorbed in one object.  The next moment it shifts to another object, then to the next one and so on and so forth till the mind gets exhausted and ceases to function.  This is known as Viks'ipta Sama'dhi.  You know that in a lullaby the baby is given one picture, the next moment another picture and so on and so forth, till the child's mind is exhausted and it takes recourse to sleep.  This is Viks'ipta Sama'dhi.


The next one is Eka'gra.  Because of the ideation of a particular object, the mind is concentrated at a particular point.  This is known as Eka'gra Sama'dhi.


     The fifth one is Nirodha.  Nirodha means to withdraw the vibrations (Gati or the propensities of mind) and to direct them to the objectless ( Avis'aya ) i.e., to withdraw the mind from the objectivities.  This is Nirodha.


     Thus Yoga is 'Yogashcittavrtti Nirodhah' i.e.  the Nirodha (channelisation) of all the Vrttis (propensities) of mind.


26 December 1965, Gazipur  


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Dharmamegha Sama'dhi


The pulsation that is caused by the action of japa or dhya'na links the jiiva [unit being] with the higher realms, and establishes it in the cognitive properties for the time being.  The pulsation that is caused by some physical condition is an unreal dream and connected with the mundane realm, and has no value.  So when, through the symphony of meditation and japa, the rhythm of life persists, it is called dharmamegha sama'dhi.  Moreover, if the symphony of meditation or japa persists for some time, and if in the natural course of events the jiiva does not forsake the meditation or japa, then loss of memory does not occur.  This state is called dhruva'smrti, or "infallible, eternal memory".  A sa'dhaka with this capacity continues his or her dhya'na and japa even in sleep.  This kind of japa is called ajapa' japa -- which is to say, without one actually performing japa, japa is going on -- or adhya'na' dhya'na -- which is to say, without one actually meditating, meditation is going on.


10 June 1990, Calcutta  




The person who is established, the spiritual aspirant who is established, in samyak smrti, that is, who never forgets the Lord, is called -- that particular state of mind is called dharmamegha sama'dhi, that is, the person is established in proper smrti.  That bliss enjoyed by the spiritual aspirant is called dharmamegha sama'dhi.


10 August 1979 evening, Bangkok



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Supreme bliss and yoga are one and the same thing.  At such a stage all propensities, all entities, become calm and tranquil.  Common people are normally madly preoccupied with mundane objects according their sam'ska'ras.  Their organs continually run after one object or other with an intense desire for self gratification.  But the state of Yoga is a state of the tranquillity of the organs.  In such a state the sa'dhakas remain calm and tranquil.  In this sa'dhana' of absolute composure, sa'dhakas have to be fully established in self-restraint through the attainment of nirodha (the cessation of all mental functions).  This can only be achieved by surmounting the four lower states of citta:  restlessness (ksipta), infatuation (mud'ha), distraction (viks'ipta) and concentration (eka'gra).


One's sense of reality often becomes distorted in a paroxysm of rage (ks'ipta), and a sort of mental inertia occurs.  This is also a type of crude sama'dhi in which all the propensities of the irate person are absorbed in the object of anger.


    


     Mudhabhu'tni samadhi, or the trance of infatuation, is a little higher than this.  This is a state of mental stupefaction which results from excessive infatuation, causing a person to lose all common sense.  All the propensities of the infatuated person become absorbed in the object of infatuation.  This sort of sama'dhi may even occur in the mind of the most common person if he or she is suddenly fettered tightly by this overpowering bondage.  In the Maha'bha'rata it is said that Jayadratha was a victim of such sama'dhi due to excessive fear.


     Viks'ipta sama'dhi occurs when the mind is engrossed in an elevated thought one moment, and the very next moment suddenly returns to its meaner propensities.  Those who do not follow Yama and Niyama (codes of self-restraint), those who endeavour to attain God without the sa'dhana' of sam'yama (self-control); are troubled by a multitude of distractions.  If they absorb themselves in singing spiritual songs (kiirtana-bhajana), their mental proclivities are temporarily focused on the Divine One.  Their bodies show signs of spiritual awakening, tears flow from their eyes, and they attain the trance of subjectivity (bha'va sama'dhi).  But immediately after the kiirtana-bhajana session has ended their unrestrained and incontinent minds race towards mean propensities with an even greater momentum.  That is why such sa'dhakas are very dishonest, depraved and deceitful, and even go so far as to defraud their own relatives.  Most people are a little wary of such bhajana singers.  People lacking self-control do enjoy a little transcendental happiness by forcing their mental flow towards the auspicious name of God, but soon after the end of the divine singing (na'ma kiirtana) their dammed up minds burst and race towards the crude world with redoubled speed, and they become even more inclined to scandal-mongering and rude behaviour.  You may have noticed how blatantly those bhajana singers indulge in abusive language at the least provocation.  These are symptoms of the distractions of the citta.


     When all the vrttis of the citta are focused on a single point it is termed the state of concentration (eka'grabhu'mi).  This, however exhalted, is not the ultimate state.  The ultimate state is reached when the mind transcends all citta-vrttis (mental propensities) and merges in the object of contemplation (dhyeya).  To reach that ultimate state one has to pass through the four stages of pratya'ha'ra yoga:  yatama'na, vya'tireka, ekendriya and vashiika'ra.


     The first stage, yatama'na, is the state of perseverance.  The state in which pratya'ha'ra is sometimes effectual, and sometimes not is called vya'tireka.  The state in which all vrttis are absorbed in one sentiment is called ekendriya, and the state in which one accepts the superiority of the Purus'abha'va and surrenders all mental modifications to the Supreme Consciousness is called vashiika'ra-siddhi or vashiikaran'a (the ultimate attainment of self-control).  Vashiikaran'a is the total subjugation of the six subtle energy centres (s'atcakra) and six lokas.  It is the true attainment of pratya'ha'ra yoga.


     Vashiika'ra-siddhi is only possible for those sa'dhakas who follow the principles of yama and niyama and perform Brahma sa'dhana'.  Those who do not, do immeasurable harm to themselves and the entire world by the strength of their ks'ipta, mudha and viks'ipta sama'dhis having attained some degree of control over their organs through the process of yoga sa'dhana'.  In the absence of the sa'dhana' of self-control they use their mental power for the petty selfish ends.  After practicing yoga or Tantra sa'dhana' for a while these immoral individuals begin to harm others for the sake of their own petty egoistic aggrandizement, and eventually end up in the blind alley of inertness.  So I entreat you to follow the right path.  The same yoga of self-control which is so beneficial for both individuals and the collectivity, is so dangerous when it is devoid of morality.  So everyone must be strict in following the principles of yama and niyama.


     Naeva va'ca' na manasa' pra'putum' shakyo na caks'us'a
Astiiti vruvato'nyatra katham' tadupalabhyate.


     Those who are not established in self-control cannot attain Brahma -- their Brahma remains confined to books and tall talks.  They can never expand their minds to absorb spiritual knowledge.  But the knower of truth realizes that Brahma is not attainable by words, nor even by reasoning, for the mind is itself a relative truth, is an ideating entity dependent upon various theories.  When the pointed intellect (agrya'buddhi), attained through concentration, is merged in its subject, Brahma, then alone does He appear.  Only when relativity is transcended does spirituality burst into radiance.  It is futile to attempt to apprehend this Transcendental Entity -- who exists beyond the scope of time, space and person -- with the help of the crude organs.  Union with the self is union with Brahma.  Illuminating this sentiment is the firmament of one's heart, one has to realize the Sublime Entity; and the one who realizes Supreme Consciousness announces thunderingly:  "He exists!!  Listen, human beings.  The words 'He exists' are much truer than 'I am' or 'You are'.  Oh sons and daughters of immortality of the divine abode, hear me.  He exists.  I have known Him, I have touched Him with my soul, I have understood Him with the core of my heart."


     Veda'hametam' purus'am' ma'hantam' a'ditya varn'am' tamasah parasta'd.


     But those materialists who run like mad dogs after crude enjoyment, who cannot think of anything beyond their physical pleasure, are incapable of transcending the perceptible aspects of the Cosmic Energy.  They can never understand the transcendental source of the Cosmic Energy, the primary seed of all causes of action, the witnessing principle of the Supreme Purus'a.  They lack the large-heartedness required to understand Him, and attempt to hide their deficiencies by unnecessarily spreading a web of dialectics.  


Astiityevopalabdhavyastattvabha'vena cobhayoh
Astiityevopalabdhasya tattvabha'vah prasiidati


Those who seek to attain Him in their hearts, in the molecules and atoms of their sense of existence, realize Him through the attainment of divine truth.  Whether in matter, spirit, space, existence, non-existence, or transcendality -- He exists everywhere, sometimes qualified, sometimes unqualified.  It is He upon whom the mind and the thought, and the organs and their propensities depend.  Spiritual sa'dhakas know upon whose merciful favour all intellectual feats and eloquent expressions of the ego depend -- they know that this is his qualified stance.  And when they have nothing to call their own, when all their inspirations and aspirations are dedicated to the source of their existence, then what remains in them is nothing but his unqualified state.  Every bearing of his qualified and unqualified states is properly realized when they attain Him through the sa'dhana' of devotion.


     Yada' sarve pramucyante ka'ma'ye'sya hrdi shrita'h
Atha martyo'mrto bhavatyatra brahma samshnute.


     What is the internal state of the sa'dhakas who attain that stance?  You know, passion of desire is of two kinds:  sam'ska'ra mu'laka (consequential) and pratyaya mu'laka (original).  The seat of expression of both these is the heart.  When the mental propensities reach the stage of cessation through sa'dhana' all the desires of the heart, whether original or consequential, disappear.  The reactive momenta (sam'ska'ra dhara) of those who have reached this stage, even once, no matter what course their reactive momenta take, have only one [ passion (Rati) left in them and that is, Brahma-rati or passion for the union with Brahma.  Love alone remains as the Praeti (the only longing).  ] At that stage sa'dhakas attain deathlessness right in this mortal world.  They see nothing but Brahma.  For the eyes of those in whom a singular longing for union with Brahma has awakened (Brahma praeti) this mundane world appears as the Brahma Loka, the Abode of Brahma -- everything is He, everything is He.


     Yada' sarve prabhidyante hrdayasyeha granthayah
Atha martyo'mrto bhavatyeta'vaddhyanusha'sanam.


     What happens in such a state?  The jiiva shakti, or the microcosmic force which is called kulakun'd'alinii (coiled serpentine), pierces through the six cakras and reaches the lotus of the sahasra'ra cakra, and thus becomes one with Him.  There are fifty vrttis in the human body situated in the different glands of each cakra.  As the kulakun'd'alinii passes through a particular gland, the vrttis connected with it cease to function.  In the absence of the vrttis, after the six cakras are pierced, the kun'd'alinii, or fundamental negative force of the unit body, merges in the Supreme Force of Shiva or Cosmic Consciousness.  In that state the sa'dhakas merge their entire entities in the Ocean of Divine Nectar, even while remaining in the mortal world.  This is the essence, the last word of all scriptures and philosophies.


Shravani Purnima 1956, Madhopur, Monghyr



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     Everything of this quinquelemental world is born out of macrocosmic connation, so creation and dissolution of all the entities of this universe lie embedded in the Macrocosmic mind.  In the flow of the continuous flow of imagination emerged the crude material mind and the living world.  Inanimate and animate worlds along the path of saincarah and prati-saincarah .


The movement and staticity and supreme culmination of both inanimate and animate objects all depend upon the cosmic will, for the entire creation is within the vast cosmic mind.  The Macrocosm, is the supreme controller of the entire flow of creation.  Human life and mind emerges in the introversive phase of the cosmic cycle.


Although the Cosmic Mind is the supreme controller of this world of emanation the unit mind also has a certain amount of control over the nerve fibres and nerve cells -- the unit body .  We cannot call the power of control an absolute power; we may call it "dominion status".  By virtue of this power, the unit mind directly controls the nerve fibres and nerve cells of the unit body.  As the unit mind is controlled by the Cosmic Mind, Parama Purus'a controls the nerve fibres and nerve cells of the human body indirectly.  If He so desires Parama Purus'a can also control them directly, too.  In that case the entire physical structure of a human being will be vibrated by the cosmic vibrations of Parama Purus'a, causing the function of the unit mind to remain suspended for that period.  This state can be called the sama'dhi of non-inferential bliss.  During this sama'dhi spiritual aspirants sa'dhakas enjoy divine bliss directly from the Cosmic Mind without the help of inferences or tanma'tras.  Under normal circumstances human beings enjoy blissful feelings in the nerve cells and fibres and later in the mind; but during the sama'dhi of non-inferential bliss, the blissful vibrations are created directly in the mind because the Macrocosmic mind does not require any fixed medium - He can use anything as his medium.  


There is another type of sama'dhi, svaru'pya sama'dhi (one of the 4 stage of savikalpa sama'dhi), in which spiritual aspirants enjoy blissful vibrations through the inferences.  Because of the close proximity to Parama Purus'a they enjoy tremendous bliss and establish a sweet relation of deep love for Him.  They feel oneness with their ideal while everything is in the most blissful state.  The relation between the sa'dhakas and their dhyeya (object of meditation) is one of real love.  They also feel the tactual bliss of the object of ideation.  This state of sama'dhi is called the sama'dhi of inferential bliss, because the sa'dhaka feels the blissful vibration through the inferences.


The basic difference between these two kinds of sama'dhi is that in the sama'dhi of inferential bliss, the sa'dhaka enjoy bliss through the medium of the tanma'tras, whereas in the sama'dhi of non-inferential bliss the sa'dhakas derive bliss directly from the cosmic mind.


The true identity of a human being is that he or she is the progeny of Parama Purus'a, and will always be.  If the same person is merely looked upon as an insignificant, weak and frail human being, it would be demeaning.  Human beings are entitled to the transcendental world beyond the realm of the senses.  Thus, human beings must not remain oblivious of that transcendental world while caught up in the relative world of trials and tribulations.  They must advance towards the spiritual goals.


This universe of ours is not absolute truth -- it is only a relative truth.  So the wise should try to know the absolute truth.  But simultaneously it is also desirable that while striving to realize the Supreme Entity one should maintain an adjustment with this relative world.  While doing one's duties properly with the application of madhuvidya' one can achieve permanent cessation of afflictions from this relative world.  Then all the entities of this world will be as sweet as honey for the spiritual aspirant.  One should follow the dictum, "Hearts to God and hands to work".  Sa'dhakas should proceed to the supreme goal with slow but steady steps with bliss within.  They must do their duties in the physical world without attachment.


     Idam' ma'nus'am sarves'a'm' bhu'ta'na'm
Madhvasya ma'nus'asya sarva'n'i bhu'ta'ni madhu
Aya'ma'tma' sarves'a'm' bhu'ta'na'm madhvasya
Sarva'n'i bhu'ta'ni madhuh.


27 April 1969  


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Attributional Sama'dhi


On the psychic level, this adhiva'sa, this shelter, this mental pabulum, is known as `a'bhoga' in Sam'skrta.  In the physical sphere, physical a'bhoga is a necessity; and in the psychic sphere, psychic a'bhoga is an even greater necessity.  As soon as we fail to provide this psychic body of ours with psychic a'bhoga, the psychic body stops functioning.  This stoppage of functioning of our psychic body is known as `psychic suspension' or `cittavrttinirodhah'.  It is a sort of sama'dhi, but this sama'dhi is an attributional sama'dhi.  It gives much pleasure, but in this sama'dhi one does not become one with Parama Purus'a.


23 October 1978, Patna   


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Nirvikalpa Sama'dhi and Savikalpa Sama'dhi


In Nirvikalpa Sama'dhi or the stance of indeterminate contemplative contemplation, the causal mind is suspended due to the transcendency of Avidya' or Ma'ya' and that is why that state is supersensible, beyond the comprehension of the senses.  Following that state, after the break of that Sama'dhi or total mental suspension, when the faculty of senses and understanding returns, then alone one realizes that some unknown current of exhilaration from some unknown region has flooded one's whole entity - is drifting it away to some ultra-sensual, pulsating realm of celestial bliss.  Hence it is said that in a state of Nirvikalpa Sama'dhi the Sa'dhakas cannot understand whether they are in Nirvikalpa Sama'dhi nor can they say afterwards that they felt any such thing, for that state was a super-sensual ego-less one.


     "Tasya sthiti ama'nasikes'u" (A'nanda Sutram)


     After the break of that self-lost, ego-less abstraction, when the Sa'dhakas feel the return of their hazy egos drifting away in the current of exuberant joy, they then realize that their preceding state must have been a state of the loftiest ecstasy which is called Nirvikalpa Sama'dhi.  The post-Sama'dhi condition is reminiscent of the state following a deep slumber.  In a state of slumber people do not feel that they are sleeping.  After waking up, when their Ka'mamaya Kos'a or crude mind becomes active, they realize, as they think of their preceding state of void or insensibility, `I was so long asleep'.  As much as the Sa'dhakas are able to establish their heroism after escaping from the Serpent-noose of Avidya', the Extroversive Force, so much A'nandasvaru'pa or Supreme Exultation they experience; they then become A'nandasvaru'pa Himself, the A'nandamu'rti or the very image of A'nanda or Bliss.


     O how long doth my ego await Thy grace
To merge in Thy likeness without a trace?
When will Thy name so glorious divine
Bid warmest tear in these eyes of mine
And my body and soul with vibration reel
In joyous rhythm of blissful thrill?


     Savikalpa Sama'dhi or the determinate suspension comprises the fullness of Vidya Prakrti (Introversive Force); that is, the full establishment of the introversive momentum in the Sa'dhakas' austere spiritual life - the absence of any Extroversive Force (Avidya'), and total cessation of their extroversive momentum.  So in such a state the ego not only exists, it exists in its total fullness and completeness.  This very ego in its Brahma'-ic mood evolves the universe, in its Vis'n'u-ic mood it preserves the universe and in its Shiva-ic mood it destroys the universe.  In the three manifestations of this very ego lies the anchor of this universe - in this short-long-slow rhythm of creation-preservation-destruction lies the tether of space, time, and person.


Peace be with you.


Paos'a Pu'rn'ima' 1956, Bhagalpur


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Dhruva'smrti


The exact mental reproduction of what has been previously perceived is called smrti or memory.  When the memory becomes established, unfailing and spontaneous, it is called dhruva'smrti, or constant memory.  Dhruva'smrti, or constant memory, is an essential prerequisite for spiritual sama'dhi or bliss.


4 May 1980, Calcutta


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Karma Sama'dhi  


[Cosmic Sound Through The Kosas]


    There is diversity in the sound owing to the variation in the degree of subtley or crudity of the vibrated object.  The rhythm in which the vibrational flow of the cosmic mind vibrates the annama'ya kos'a of individual microcosms - veins, nerves, arteries, blood, lymph, etc.  - is the initial stage of the divine cosmic sound.  When this sound is heard in the anama'ya kos'a it resembles that of a cricket.  When this cosmic sound vibrates the ka'mamaya kos'a it resembles the sound of ankle bells.  In the manomaya kos'a it resembles a flute (the mystic sadhakas of the Vaesnava cult describe it as the sound of Lord Krs'n'a's flute); in atima'nasa kos'a, the resonance of a gong; in vijina'namaya kos'a the buzzing of bees or the rolling of ocean waves; and in hiran'maya kos'a, a prolonged onm' sound.  Thus the cosmic sound is expressed in various ways according to the degrees of crudity or subtlety in relation to the fundamental factors.  There are various physical and psychic expressions centering around the various degrees of cosmic sound.  When one's mind is confined to a particular stratum one hears the sound peculiar to that stratum only.  A person who lacks concentration of mind cannot hear any expression of the cosmic sound.  In the field of spiritual practice the divine sound is expressed in a spontaneous way.  When the existential awareness of living beings becomes concentrated with the cognitive bearing, it is not attracted to any sort of sound.  Even the sound onm' of the hiran'maya kos'a becomes non-existent in the non-attributional stance because every sound is a particular expression of a gun'a or principle (sentient, mutative or static principle), or as an expression of an action.  A person who is merged in the Cognitive Bearing does not need to make any psychic endeavour with the help of any acoustic root.  He or she is free from bondages, from all fetters, having attained karma sama'dhi.  


28 January 1957, Muzaffarpur
Subha's'ita Sam'graha Part 5  


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Hat'ha Yoga Sama'dhi


People should have some control over their breathing, over their respiratory system, because the waves of respiration control the waves of thinking.  Whenever you are doing something crude, your respiration becomes very active; and when you are thinking of something subtle, it becomes slow, extremely slow.  And finally, when this respiration coincides, or becomes one, with one's thought-waves, that stage is known as hat'ha yoga sama'dhi.  That is, the physical exertions, the physical emanations, become one with the psychic emanations.  So some degree of control over respiration is essential.


3 June 1990 DMC, Anandanagar  


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Tanma'trik Sama'dhi


     As regards the nature of the quinquelemental universe,it has been said in the philosophy,


     Adarshana'da'patita punashca'darshanam'gatah.
Na'sao tava na tasya tvam' tatra vrtha'ka' Parivedama'."


     Each and every object of creation comes from the world of invisibility and goes back to the world of invisibility.  Between the two worlds of invisibility lies the world of visibility.  Nothing can be the permanent property of anyone.  Everything of this changing world is bound to this disappear, hence one should not lament over anything.


This quinquelemental universe is composed of solid, liquid, luminous, aerial and ethereal factors with their respective inferences or tanma'tras.  This universe is a collection of innumerable inferential or tanma'trik vibrations.  This world of visibility has come into being through positive projection.  Its tanma'trik vibrations may be withdrawn in a converse way, resulting in tanma'trik sama'dhi.  In a negative process they may be withdrawn into the world of invisibility.


     The vastness of the universe is due to the five fundamental factors.  If the liquid factor was withdrawn from this universe, it would be one thousand times smaller than its present size.  If the luminous and aerial factors were withdrawn from that universe, it would be a thousand times smaller than a mustard seed.  And if the etherial factor was withdrawn from the remaining portion a small point would remain having a certain position but no magnitude.  So, the vast universe is in reality, nothing but a point.  The Supreme Entity, in his imaginative flow, has attached the five fundamental factors to this tiny point to create the vast universe.  During sadhana, the mind has got to be one-pointed.  That point is the silver line between the relative world and the absolute world.  Hence, in the course of sadhana, when a sadhaka achieves full control over objects ( an object is nothing but a collection of inferential vibrations) he or she is said to have attained "tanma'trik sama'dhi".


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SA'DHANA'


The Three Stages of Sa'dhana'


In contemporary Tantra there are three particular stages of sa'dhana' which can be fused into one, or can remain separate:  Sha'kta, Vaes'n'aviiya, and Shaeva.  True spiritual practice is a happy combination of these three stages.  In endeavouring to reach the Nucleus of the Cosmic Cycle from any point on the circumference, one must develop each stage, for each has an equal importance.  To understand modern Tantra one has to understand the significance of the three stages.


Who is a Sha'kta?  A Sha'kta is one who is determined to awaken his or her cognitive faculty and fight against the negative influence of the static principle.  Such a person struggles ceaselessly against psychic impurities and physical ailments in individual life, and against social evils and economic disparity in collective life.  A Sha'kta is not afraid of the crushing load of unhappiness in life, and never surrenders to pessimism, but fights against the miseries of life with revolutionary zeal.  This is the criterion of a Sha'kta.  Such dauntless fighting spirit wins the laurels of victory for a Sha'kta one day, a victory which is never possible through coaxing and cajoling.  Of course, as a war strategy, there can be a temporary truce, but nothing more than that.


In Indian mythology there is a story about the Sha'kta, Vaes'n'ava (or Vaes'n'aviiya) and Shaeva mentalities.* Perhaps you have heard that Shiva was first married to Sati, or Dakshayani.  Shiva was at that stage of the story like a soul in bondage.  When Sati heard from Narada that King Daksha, her father, was staging a grand sacrificial ritual, she became determined to attend it.  Shiva objected to her going and tried all He could to dissuade her, but in vain.  Sati went to her father's house.  Up to here in the story, Prakrti has been dominant, and Purus'a dormant, as is the case with a microcosm in bondage.



* In this chapter the author's focus is psychological:  
the author discusses the different mentalities characteristic of Sha'ktas, of Vaes'n'avas and of Shaevas.  From a philosophical point of
view, the different recognized schools of the Hindu tradition --
five in all, known as  the<MI>Paincopa'sana'<D> -- are distinguished
on the basis of their different deities, or objects of meditation.  
In Shaeva'ca'ra (Shiva Cult) one's object of meditation is Shiva.  
In Sha'kta'ca'ra it is one of the representations of <MI>Shakti,<D>
or <MI>Prakrti<D>.  In Vaes'n'ava'ca'ra it is Vis'n'u.  
In Saora'ca'ra it is Su'rya (the sun or the sun god), and
in Ga'n'apatya'ca'ra it is Gan'apati (Ganes'a).  


In all the cults, the more subtle practitioners understand that their
particular deity is a representation of the infinite <MI>Brahma<D>.  
--Eds


Realms of mind, cakas and associative glands, methods of optimization, and stages of Sama'dhi







Then next, Shiva's latent valour awakened.  Totally absorbed in his own self, He placed the dead body of Sati on his shoulder and began to move throughout the universe.  Everyone saw that the inert Prakrti had found her place on the shoulder of Purus'a.  This was the sa'dhana' of Shiva.  Shiva at this stage was the perfect Sha'kta, performing sa'dhana' to attain victory over Prakrti.* This is the first stage of sa'dhana' -- Shakti sa'dhana', to establish one's supremacy over Shakti, or Prakrti.


* The story goes that King Daksha's main purpose in staging
the sacrificial ritual was to humiliate Shiva, for he never forgave
Shiva for marrying Sati against his wishes.  When Sati realized this,
and saw that her pleas to stop the harsh vilification of Shiva were
falling on deaf ears, she threw herself into the fire.  Shiva received
immediate news and rushed to the spot to try to save her from being
totally consumed by the flames.  --Eds.


Then Prakrti undertook the practice of sa'dhana' in order to make Herself subservient to Shiva.  Prakrti wanted Purus'a to be Her Lord.  Or as the mythological story goes, Sati took rebirth as the daughter of Himalaya and Menaka and was called Parvati; she then underwent tremendous penance to get Shiva as her husband, while Shiva refused to even look at her.  So Prakrti suffered immense hardship to attain Purus'a, but Purus'a remained totally indifferent.  At this stage Shiva was the perfect Vaes'n'ava [Vaishnavite], for he had no concern at all for Prakrti.


Then finally Parvati, with the help of the gods, got her wish to be Shiva's consort.  Prakrti became sheltered in Purus'a.  But since Shiva meanwhile did not give up his original non-attributional stance, He was the ultimate Shaeva [Shaivite].


This beautiful allegory has immense educational value.  To recapitulate:  In the first stage of sa'dhana' one has to become a Sha'kta in order to acquire adequate shakti [power].  In the second stage Prakrti is willing to take the shelter of Purus'a, but the sa'dhaka is indifferent, and remains absorbed in the flow of Cosmic bliss -- so this is Vaes'n'ava sa'dhana', the endeavour to throw oneself into the current of Cosmic bliss and float towards the supreme goal.  [And in the last stage one practises Shaeva sa'dhana'.]


In the Vaes'n'ava stage sa'dhakas remain totally unconcerned as to who is Purus'a and who is Prakrti.  Their only desire is to become one with Brahma in the flow of bliss.  They do not make a hair-splitting analysis regarding fight or non-fight, for they know they will remain absorbed in the Cosmic flow of bliss for eternity.  This is the true spirit of Vaes'n'ava sa'dhana'.  "Vis'n'u" means "all-pervading", "expansive" -- so the proper etymological meaning of "Vaes'n'ava" is "universalist".


Vaishnavite bha'va [spiritual stance] can be divided into two stages:  liila'bha'va and nityabha'va.  When a sa'dhaka's mind oscillates [among different experiences] along the paths of the saincara and pratisaincara of Brahma and becomes inextricably merged with Its panoramic expressions, that condition is called liila'bha'va, and the sa'dhaka's blissful feeling is called liila'nanda.  In liila'bha'va the sa'dhakas' entire existences become vibrated with the vibrations of the Cosmic dance, causing them to burst out in dance, laughter, tears and song.  But in nitya'nanda there is no such expression as this.  


Purus'ottama [the Nucleus Consciousness] is the supreme source of the countless forms and flows that emanate during liila'bha'va; but his own stance is nityabha'va [eternal and unchangeable].  So the a'nanda which sa'dhakas experience when united with Him in his unchangeable, eternal stance is called nitya'nanda.


The difference between the unsullied Shaivite Shaeva bha'va and the Vaishnavite nitya'nanda is very little.  In fact nitya'nanda can also be experienced in Nirgun'a Brahma bha'va [the Shaeva bha'va, here denoted the "non-attributional" bha'va].  The difference between the Vaishnavite nitya'nanda and the Shaivite nirvikalpa sama'dhi [trance of indeterminate absorption] is not more than the difference between the original bha'va of Purus'ottama and that of Nirgun'a Brahma.* The attainment of the eternal stance at the altar of Nirgun'a Brahma is Shaeva'vastha' [the highest Shaivite stage of realization].  In modern Tantra there has been a unique blending of the Sha'kta, Shaeva and Vaes'n'ava systems of spiritual practice.


* I.e., the two experiences, nitya'nanda and
nirvikalpa sama'dhi, are no more different from each other
than are the two bha'vas, or stances, from which the two
experiences respectively come.  --Eds.



The Course of Physical and Psychic Development


The more that unit beings advance towards the Supreme Being, the more their physical and psychic bodies (which are made of Macrocosmic stuff) advance from crude to subtle.  In the first phase of Macrocosmic imagination, the Cognitive Faculty moves from subtle to crude.  One atom or particle comes in closer proximity to another atom or particle.  The name of this process is saincara.  And when these particles begin to drift away from each other or become powdered down, thus going beyond the scope of sense perception, it is called the process of pratisaincara.  When an object becomes more condensed it should be understood that the Macrocosmic mind-stuff is decreasing its inter-molecular gaps.  This causes an object to gradually come within the periphery of sense perception.  When there comes to be a high degree of diversity in the structure of the condensed object, it requires a self-activated psychic factor for its preservation, maintenance and destruction.  This psychic entity (the mind) is created as a result of clash due to inter-molecular proximity.  Thus it can be said that mind emerges as a result of clash within the material structure.  But it must not be forgotten that matter is nothing but a condensed state of Macrocosmic mind-stuff.  What we call matter is not crude matter as such, but a metamorphosed form of Conciousness.


The unit mind finds its expression through clash.  This process of clash causes the psychic atoms to get powdered down and expanded to such a degree that the mind expands into the universe, transcending the limits of the small "I".  This continous unfoldment and expansion of the mind through constant clash and cohesion is brought about mainly by Prakrti.  The unit mind finds natural problems which it must solve, such as procuring food, finding accommodation, and rearing children -- not to mention simply staying alive.  The more difficult these obstacles are, the more scope the mind gets to unfold.  The struggle to overcome obstacles is the primary factor in the development of the mind.


But there is also a secondary factor, and that is the influence of a more-developed mind on a less-developed mind.  Domestic animals such as dogs and cats get ample scope for accelerated development due to their contact with the human mind.  The company of human beings often accelerates their progress more than do the natural forces which present them with obstacles to overcome.  So if a dog's mind can develop into a monkey's mind, and a monkey's mind into a human mind, in the normal course of evolution, then a dog that is in constant contact with a human being may experience a tremendous intellectual growth and be reborn as a human being, bypassing the stage of a monkey.  Such galloping changes do take place in the process of animate evolution; and comparatively undeveloped creatures, if advantaged with human contact, can establish themselves in human form in a shorter period than can comparatively developed creatures deprived of human contact.


When a microcosm reaches a stage of expanded consciousness, having made considerable psychic progress due to natural clashes or due to contact with more-developed minds, and is able to control the psychic propensities as opposed to being subservient to them, it is called manus'ya [human being].  The term manus'ya, or ma'nus'a, means "mind-preponderant being".


With the development of the mind, the physical structure becomes more complex.  It can be put in another way:  the physical structure grows in complexity in order to serve as a proper vehicle for the expression of a developed mind.  When the psychic activities are channelized in different directions or engaged in combatting various obstacles, the brain, the medium of the mind, is bound to become more complex.


Similarly, undeveloped human beings can make rapid psychic progress due to natural clashes or due to contact with great personalities.  The greater the application of psychic energy to a unit being, the more its physical stuff is transformed into mind-stuff.  This helps it attain greater psychic expansion, and consequently the greater reflection of Cosmic Consciousness on the unit mental plate.


Unit beings have attained a human body after evolving from the stage of animality through structures of ever-increasing complexity.  So human beings have imbibed experiences from animal lives and not from divine lives.


Humans' psychic development keeps pace with the growing complexity of their physical bodies.  Moreover, various new diseases come into existence as destructive forces of that complex physical body.


In human society there are many people whose mentality is somewhere between that of forest primates and that of humans.  Some have just evolved from animal life to that point, in the process of pratisaincara; while others have reverted to that point from a more developed human level, due to their mean thoughts.  If they continue to allow mean thoughts to dominate their minds, they will degenerate to the even cruder stage of inert matter, becoming bricks, stone or wood.  Just as animals have no scope to elevate their thoughts or practise spirituality, similarly human beings who make their minds animal-like through animalistic thinking are unable to pursue spiritual practices.  Even after receiving spiritual initiation or receiving an education, they behave like ignorant fools.  But those who are by mentality undeveloped human beings, but not animals, will if they receive initiation carry on spiritual practices, and will if they receive education behave like intelligent people.


Spiritual initiation and education will bring about mental development in those who have degenerated to the level of animality, but it will be next to impossible for them to develop spiritually.  We must pay more attention to those people who are undeveloped but who have not entirely lost their human sense.  If we fail to elevate them, our social system will be futile -- all our education, culture and civilization will be futile.


All beings are made of the same consciousness.  So although we may find ourselves at different stages of psychic elevation, a Bra'hman'a and a Ks'attriya, an Indian and an Englishman, a sweeper and a scavenger, a Zulu and a Maori, and even a tiny ant, are all linked by the bonds of fraternity.  If we remember this fact, if we work for the well-being of all, then undeveloped human beings will be able to develop their spiritual potentiality when they come in contact with us.  Even cows, dogs, tigers and bears who come in close contact with us will develop psychic wealth and gradually acquire spiritual treasures.


In the most developed minds, an infinite thirst becomes awakened.  By attaining the supreme rank of Brahma -- bliss personified -- that infinite thirst can be quenched.  The sustained effort to attain that blissful state is called dharma sa'dhana'.  But if human beings do not find the proper way to satisfy their thirst, they go astray.  That is, those who do not follow the spiritual path may perform harmful actions at any time.  Even those whom society respects as intelligent or learned may, in reality, be no better than "polished satans", or what the scriptures call "demons".  Our modern society is full of such people.  They talk about universalism like parrots.  They have no defined ideology in their individual and collective lives, and merely dedicate themselves to the deception of the human race as they strive to serve their petty self-interests by any means, fair or foul.  We cannot expect any beneficial contribution from them.


Surrendering Actions to Brahma


The existence of microcosms is bound up in action.  Microcosms will have to act and to move; life is a dynamic process from beginning to end.  No one has come to this world to remain static; staticity is contrary to living existence.  Even the physical body changes every moment, even the body maintains dynamic movement.


Human beings perform two types of action:  pratyayamu'laka [original actions] and sam'ska'ramu'laka [reactive actions -- actions prompted or goaded by sam'ska'ras].  Original actions are performed under one's own initiative, and thus one is fully responsible for them.  Every original action is a new action.  It may represent an extension of the experience of the past, but it is not a reaction.  


And the actions which human beings are compelled to perform as reactions to their previous actions are called reactive actions.  In other words, original actions constitute efforts, and reactive actions constitute the resultants [of the original actions].


Suppose you have to go to Dhanbad but do not know the way.  Stopping someone on the street you ask politely, "Excuse me, could you please tell me how to get Dhanbad?" In reply the man retorts angrily, "What do you think I am, a traffic policeman who gives directions to any Tom, Dick or Harry?" You will certainly feel hurt.  But you should remember that this was destined to happen to you as a reaction to one of your previous bad actions.  So even though you asked that man politely, you had to undergo psychic pain.  Your action of asking the man is a reactive action.


When people rob others, or indulge in hypocrisy, or cheat people, or indulge in tall talk day after day, they are committing original actions.  When a dishonest government employee accepts a bribe it is an original action, and when his son gets sick and has to be rushed to the doctor it is the reactive action (the reaction to the original action).  When his son dies he laments, "I haven't knowingly done anything wrong.  Oh, Lord, why have you given me such severe punishment."  But God did not give him any punishment -- the deep sorrow he felt at the death of his child was the result of his past original actions.


The moment sa'dhakas start spiritual practice they must surrender all their original actions to Brahma so that they do not have to endure the reactions.  This surrender is the most important aspect of spiritual practice.


Brahma'rpan'am' Brahmahavirbrahma'gnao Brahman'a'hutam;
Brahmaeva tena gantavyam' Brahmakarmasama'dhina'.



[The action of offering is Brahma, the ghee offered into the sacrificial fire is Brahma, the fire is Brahma, and the person who offers is Brahma.  Those who will maintain this spirit in every action will finally merge in Brahma.]


Reactions in requital to past actions normally occur more in a spiritual aspirant's life than in an ordinary person's life.  The reason is that when all original actions are surrendered to Brahma, there remain only the reactive actions.  The reactions may be good or bad [according to whether they are resultants of good or bad original actions].  But think about how many of the deeds you performed before coming to the path of sa'dhana' were good and how many were bad.  To tell the unpleasant truth, ninety-nine percent of your deeds were bad.  Hence it is often the case that sa'dhakas have to suffer much more from bad reactive momenta than get to enjoy good ones.  It can even be said that the more one suffers from reactions, the more one is progressing along the path of sa'dhana'.


Of course, the requital of the reactive momenta may possibly be pleasurable instead of painful; it all depends upon the nature of one's actions.  In either case, the more one surrenders one's actions to Brahma, the shorter will be the period of requital caused by the reactions.  In this case the intensity of the requital will be greater than normal; but this is a good sign, because intense requital means the exhaustion of the requital within a short period.


Suppose you have incurred a loan of a thousand rupees.  If you repay the loan in monthly installments of one rupee it will take you a thousand months to clear the loan.  One rupee being such a small amount, this will hardly cause any suffering at all.  But if you want to free yourself from the debt quickly, you will have to pay a larger amount every month, which will obviously cause more suffering.  Likewise, if one does not feel the need to be freed of one's reactive momenta quickly, one can undergo less affliction, but then one may have to wait ten or twenty lives to exhaust all the reactive momenta.  Moreover, within those ten or twenty lives one will probably undergo psychic degeneration, and due to one's mean actions imbibe new reactive momenta.


Hence genuine sa'dhakas always strive to be relieved of their acquired sam'ska'ras as early as possible; therefore they surrender completely to Brahma.  The consummation of self-surrender precipitates the requital of sam'ska'ras, and this requital may take place in the Sha'kta, Vaes'n'ava or Shaeva stages, but in the Shaeva stage the requitals are not felt so keenly, and therefore may be considered not to be requitals in the true sense of the term.  The requital of reactive momenta is felt most acutely in the Sha'kta stage, because this stage involves a tremendous fight against <MI%0>Prakrti.


The Sha'kta stage is dominated by jina'na and karma, not by bhakti.* Wherever there is struggle, action is bound to become predominant; likewise one will have to acquire knowledge -- the knowledge of how to struggle.  Through knowledge, Sha'kta sa'dhakas become fully aware that all their sorrows and afflictions are the results of their past original actions.  In order to be relieved of their affliction they do not cry pitifully to Parama Purus'a, but, displaying the spirit of valour, say, "O Parama Purus'a, give me strength to continue the struggle.  I do not want to escape from affliction and suffering, I want to attain You in a joyful struggle against the affliction and suffering."  The great poet Rabindranath Tagore said in this regard,


* Jina'na, karma and bhakti are forms
of spiritual practice which emphasize, respectively, discrimination,
selfless action, and devotion.  --Eds.


Vipade more raks'a' kara e nahe mor pra'rthana',
Vipade yena na' kari kabhu bhay;
Duhkha ta'pe vyathita cite na'i ba' dile sa'ntvana'
Duhkhe yena karite pa'ri jay.


[My prayer to You is not "Save me from danger," but "Bless me so that I can overcome danger."  You need not console me in my suffering, but bless me so that I can overcome suffering.]


This is the underlying spirit of a Sha'kta.


The underlying spirit of Vaishnavite sa'dhana' is somewhat different.  The mundane obstacles, the friends and foes, merge in the Vaishnavite sa'dhakas' world of blissful ideation.  With whom will they fight?  They feel that the entire universe is an unbroken divine play composed of Ra'dha' and Krs'n'a.  In this stage there is a clear dominance of action and devotion.  Vaishnavite sa'dhana' is a blissful flow indeed.  Such sa'dhakas are like points on the circumference of the Cosmic Circle, moving towards the Nucleus, Purus'ottama, along the radius, which is their sa'dhana'.  And the expanse through which they move towards Him along the radius is the ru'pasa'gar [ocean of beauteous forms], the rasa'mrtasindhu [ocean of bliss].  Such sa'dhakas reap only, through reactive actions, the consequences of their past actions.  Jina'na is not dominant in this Vaishnavite stage.  Vaishnavite sa'dhakas say that Purus'ottama is enacting his liila' [divine game] through this expressed universe.  They say, "O Lord, You are both wisdom and ignorance, happiness and sorrow.  Some people You place on golden thrones as kings, others You throw into the street to beg from door to door with outstretched begging bowls.  You are my joy, You are my sorrow.  Do whatever You like with me."  Such sa'dhakas would never say, "O Lord, save me from danger," but


Sudha'raseo bha'sa'o yakhan
Dhanya Hari dhanya Hari;
Vyatha' diye ka'nda'o yakhan
Dhanya Hari dhanya Hari.


"When You float me on the waves of bliss, O Lord, You are really gracious, and when You make me cry in pain, You are equally gracious.  In happiness I feel Your sweet touch, and burst into laughter, exhilarated by Your divine sport.  In sorrow I also feel Your sweet touch, and burst into tears, overwhelmed by Your divine sport.  How strange You are!  How wonderful!  I have nothing to complain about."


In the final stage of Vaishnavite sa'dhana', the unit mind becomes one with the Cosmic Mind.  The moment before the final merger, sa'dhakas realise that the Entity who has come in the form of happiness is their dearest Lord, and the Entity who has come in the form of sorrow is also their dearest Lord.  They feel the divine joy of the Cosmic play.  They never retreat, for having passed through the Sha'kta stage they have acquired immense courage and valour.  One who has not been an ideal Sha'kta cannot be an ideal Vaes'n'ava.  In the final stage of the Vaes'n'ava cult, sa'dhakas offer their greatest treasure -- their mind -- to Brahma, and in exchange for this supreme gift expect nothing in return.  In the absence of mind they cannot enjoy the sweetness of the divine play any longer.  At that supreme stage of surrender liila'nanda is transformed into nitya'nanda.  When sa'dhakas become ensconced in nitya'nanda they are said to have attained the Shaeva stage.  One who has not been an ideal Vaes'n'ava cannot be an ideal Shaeva.  Shaivites have no minds of their own, for they have already surrendered their minds to their dear Lord.  This is the supreme surrender, this is the supreme attainment.


Ratna'karastava grham' grhin'ii ca padma';
Deyam' kimapi bhavate Purus'ottama'ya.
A'bhiirava'manayana'pahrtama'nasa'ya;
Dattam' mana yadupate tvamidam' grha'n'a.


[Your abode is brimming over with gems and jewels.  The goddess of fortune is Your housekeeper.  What can I offer to You, O Lord?  Oh yes, there is one thing You lack, as it has been stolen by Your devotees; it is Your mind.  I therefore offer my mind to You.  Please accept it.]



The Stages of Pratya'ha'ra Yoga


Contemporary Tantra has harmoniously blended the Sha'kta, Vaes'n'ava and Shaeva sa'dhana's.  Of the three, the Sha'kta sa'dhana' is the most important, because it is the initial stage of the microcosm's journey towards the Macrocosm.  Progress on this journey is made through pratya'ha'ra yoga.  As all spiritual aspirants are aware, the goal of pratya'ha'ra, dha'ran'a', and dhya'na is the attainment of sama'dhi.* Pratya'ha'ra is the conscious endeavour to withdraw the mind from mundane qualities and attractions -- easier said than done!  The process of varn'a'rghya'da'n** is in most cases very difficult to perform properly.


Pratya'ha'ra has four stages:  yatama'na, vya'tireka, ekendriya and vashiika'ra.  Yatama'na is a conscious effort to transcend the negative influence of the propensities.  Suppose you see one of your colleagues taking a bribe, and think, "Had I not been a moral tantrika I could have also earned some extra money in this way."  This shows that your propensity of greed is not fully controlled, but as you are keen to control it, you have adopted the true Tantric way of life.  For this conscious effort on your part, you deserve the appellation yatama'na.


* Pratya'ha'ra, dha'ran'a', dhya'na
and sama'dhi are the last four limbs of as't'a'm'ga
[eight-limbed] yoga.  --Eds.


** Offering of mental colours to the Lord, also known
as Guru pu'ja'.  -- Eds.


In vya'tireka, the second stage, some propensities may be controlled at one time, but uncontrolled at another time.  Or a person may control physical desire, but suffer from an increase in anger; or may become free from greed for money but will develop a strong desire for name and fame.  After delivering an eloquent lecture he or she will say, "All the credit goes to Brahma.  It is only by his grace that I could deliver such a lecture," but in his or her heart will think, "What an excellent speech I gave today."  This is called vya'tireka.


In the ekendriya stage, the propensities are brought under control, no doubt, but not permanently.  In order to exhaust the reactive momenta the propensities sometimes strongly assert themselves, causing one to repent as a result.  (Ask yourself whether or not you have experienced this sort of mental torture.) Hence this stage does not represent complete pratya'ha'ra either, because the pa'shas and ripus [fetters and enemies of the mind] are not totally controlled.

The pa'shas and ripus assert themselves through the medium of the mind and the indriyas.* If even one indriya remains uncontrolled, it should be concluded that there is still a worm in the flower of the mind; and a worm-eaten flower cannot be offered to the Lord.  Only when all the indriyas are fully controlled can it be said that the mind is under the complete control of the a'tman [unit consciousness].  This is real pratya'ha'ra, or vashiika'ra siddhi, for it means Prakrti has merged into the Supreme Cognitive Principle.  This is called Krs'n'asharan'a [taking the shelter of Krs'n'a] in devotional psychology.


*  An indriya is a sensory or motor organ, together with its respective nerves, nerve fluid, and site in the brain.  --Eds


The importance of pratya'ha'ra sa'dhana' is immense, because it involves a harmonious blending of knowledge, devotion and action.  In this sa'dhana', the Sha'kta bha'va finds its consummation, and the latent devotion starts sprouting.  This sprout ultimately develops into the highest Vaes'n'ava bha'va.  Shaeva bha'va is the path of knowledge.  So in social life there is a great need for Sha'ktas and Vaes'n'avas.  The pratya'ha'ra yoga with which a Sha'kta starts rendering service to the world reaches its consummation in the perfect and total service of the Vaes'n'ava.  Pratya'ha'ra begins with vigorous action and culminates in selfless devotion.  


Vashiika'ra siddhi is only attained by devotees.  Even Shankaracharya [the great protagonist of jina'na] admitted, Moks'aka'rana samagrya'm' bhaktireva gariyasii -- "Of all the ways to attain salvation the way of bhakti or devotion is the greatest."


If knowledge is likened to the elder brother of a family, devotion is his younger sister, happily holding her brother's hand as she walks beside him.  The little sister cannot walk alone, nor would it be safe for her to do so, but when she walks merrily along with her brother, people look lovingly at her and speak sweet words to her.  They will probably ask that elder brother, "Is she your little sister?"


Vaesha'khii Pu'rn'ima' 1958 DMC, Ranchi


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~    



     Parama Purus'a is the only goal of human life.  Sa'dhakas who realizes this truth and accordingly channelize all their thoughts and longings towards Parama Brahma are bound to be blessed with devotional sentiment, and will finally reach the high stage of devotion.  According to the degree of devotion aroused due to practice of Iishvara pran'idha'na or dhya'na sa'dhakas attain different kinds of sama'dhi.  Some devotees believe the highest goal of spiritual life is to become one with Parama Purus'a, because they think that as long as they have their physical existence, they will have to save their individual minds and sensory organs.  At this stage if the unit mind runs towards the crude pleasures of life, misguided by the extroversial indriyas, then the unit being will surely degenerate.  But there are many sa'dhakas who prefer to remain close to Parama Purus'a and experience cosmic bliss (Brahma'nanda) instead of merging with Him.  They say, [" Ciini hate ca'i na' re man, Ciini khete bha'lo ba'si" -- "I do not wish to be sugar, I wish to taste sugar."]


In Vaes'n'ava philosophy, this bha'va is called gopiibha'va or vrajabha'va.  The attraction out of special love is called ra'ga'nuga'bhakti.  Unlike jina'namishra' bhakti, ra'ga'nu'ga' bhakti is devotion of vanity, of occult power and knowledge, and unlike vaedhiki bhakti, this kind of devotion has no ostentatious display.  The type of sama'dhi which the sa'dhakas of ra'ga'nuga' bhakti attain in the process of ideation on their goal is known as ra'ga'nuga' sama'dhi.


     During the state of ra'ga'nuga' sama'dhi sa'dhakas usually sit silently in meditation.  They take deep breaths and during each breath make a violent `hunkar' sound.  In ra'ga'nuga' sama'dhi the unit mind retains its existence and feels blissful owing to the close proximity of Parama Purus'a.


     (On May 10th, 1969, at Ranchi Jagrti, a certain sa'dhaka had the unique experience of ra'ga'nuga' sama'dhi.  First the sa'dhaka concentrated his mind on the different cakras in the different parts of the body, and in the process of dhyana on ajina cakra (pituitary plexus), he went into sama'dhi.  During sama'dhi the above mentioned symptoms were visible).


     Ra'ga'nuga bhakti leads to ra'ga'tmika bhakti in the next stage.  "Ra'ga'tmika'manusrt'a ya'sa' Ra'ga'nuga'cayate".  Many sa'dhakas does not want to stop at vrajabha'va or gopibha'va.  They argue that to stop at gopibha'va and to decide not to merge in Brahma means to show proper regard for the extroversive and introversive flow of the Cosmic imagination (Saincara and Pratisaincara).


Brahma in his flow of Saincara and Pratisaincara has been leading the entire creation on the path of evolution.  Each and every molecule and atom will have to merge itself in Brahma one day.  The attainment of salvation of molecule -- which is an expression of Sagun'a Brahma -- means that a certain portion of his infinite sam'ska'ras (however meagre that portion might be) is exhausted.  So is it not proper to make the fullest utilization of the opportunity which Sagun'a Brahma, out of his grace, presents to human beings to be established in Parama Brahma?  When sa'dhakas have a strong desire to be established in Parama Brahma and direct all their psychic thoughts and feelings toward Him, there arises a devotion called ra'ga'tmika bhakti.  When the sa'dhakas enter into sama'dhi while ideating on their goal with that devotional sentiment, it is called ra'ga'tmika' sama'dhi.


     (On May 10, 1969, at Ranchi jagriti, a sa'dhaka attained ra'ga'tmika sama'dhi.  He sat in dhya'na'sana and with his mind concentrated on each cakra, and began to do dhya'na on the supreme object of ideation.  He realized that each of his cakras is being controlled by his Is't'a.  Not only that he felt also that his Is't'a is perceptibly present in his blood, nerves, indriyas, etc.  He began to take deep breaths.  After remaining in that state, he started to roll on the ground.  In this sama'dhi there is less physical calmness than in ra'ga'nuga').


Each and every object of the universe, whether animate or inanimate, is emanating countless vibrations.  The Macrocosmic Mind is the controller of these vibrations.  In the case of living beings, the Cosmic Mind controls everything directly, and in the case of non-living entities, the individual manifestations of the Macrocosm control everything.  The wind blows, the water flows, the stone rolls, and the leaves flutter - each of these inanimate objects has a unit mind, but a dormant one.  They cannot create vibrations by themselves; the Cosmic Mind creates vibrations for them.  In the case of living beings, although the controller is the unit mind, the unit mind is actually the limited expression of the Cosmic Mind, and thus they are bound to follow the dictates of the Cosmic Mind.


The purpose of the spiritual practice of a sa'dhaka is to transform the unit mind into Cosmic Mind.  The mind of a non-sa'dhaka is guided by extroversal propensities.  As the sa'dhaka's goal is Parama Purus'a he or she will have to invariably direct the mind towards Parama Purus'a.  When the unit mind merges its limited identity into the vast cosmic entity, we call it 'self surrender'.


As a result of surrender the smaller 'I' of the unit mind is guided by the bigger 'I'.  The feelings of mundane pleasure which are produced in the nerve cells and fibres are controlled by the small 'I'.  But the spiritual vibrations produced in the human body are created and controlled by the Cosmic Mind.  The small 'I' is concerned with mundane pleasure whereas the big 'I' is concerned with spiritual bliss.  The small 'I' differs from individual to individual but the big 'I' is the same in all.  The purpose of sa'dhana' is to convert the small 'I' into the big 'I'.  Metaphorically speaking, the bigger-I is the moon* in the sky which is related to everyone through every generation.  Physical vibration is crude whereas mental vibration is very subtle.  The difference between mental happiness in connection with physical vibration and spiritual happiness in connection with psychic vibration is clear.  The pleasure derived by eating a sweet is physical - to attain it one must go to a sweet shop.  But for spiritual happiness, a constant endeavour is required.  The mind must be concentrated on the object of meditation - all the psychic thoughts and feelings should be directed to Parama Purus'a.  A relationship of deep love must be established with Him so that there remains only one thought in the mind:  that there is no other entity other than Parama Purus'a.  The type of sama'dhi that a sa'dhaka attains with such a devotional sentiment is called bha'va sama'dhi.  


*In Indian lullabies the moon is referred to the maternal uncle of everyone in every generation.


Bha'va sama'dhi  

Sitting in dhya'na'sana he began to practice dhya'na on mu'la'dha'ra cakra.  As soon as he connected his mind with the Cosmic Mind he felt the sweet waves of cosmic bliss.  Then he took his mind to deeper realms, practicing dhya'na in svadhista'na and man'ipura cakras.  At this stage he directed all his psychic energies to Parama Purus'a.  Now only one thought was dominant in his mind:  "Only Parama Purus'a exists and no other entity."  Then while doing dhya'na on ana'hata cakra he had a feeling that Parama Purus'a was his own.  At this stage the sa'dhaka remained absorbed in limitless bliss.  Waves of bliss constantly flowed through the glands, nerve cell and fibers causing to remain totally oblivious of the external world).


During sama'dhi the vibrations created in different parts of a sa'dhaka's body are not controlled by the unit mind but by the Cosmic Mind.  There is a feeling of indescribable bliss throughout the body which causes the sa'dhaka to shiver continuously.  Bha'va sama'dhi can be experienced in any of the four lower cakras.  But as soon as the mind rises above the ana'hata cakra a higher sama'dhi is experienced.


c.  1969



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